Explorers opening up new trade routes and discovering new land.
15th Century through the 18th Century
The period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas across mathematics, physics, astronomy, and biology in institutions supporting scientific investigation and in the more widely held picture of the universe.
Political, cultural, and religious upheaval in Europe. Reformers like Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII questioned catholic churches and their practices. This triggered war, persecutions and the counter-reformation.