The Renaissance, or "Rebirth" in French, was the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It marked the beginning of the Modern Age. The Renaissance witnessed the discovery and exploration of art and visual culture. Though, it was a time of the renewal of Classical learning and wisdom after a long period of cultural decline and depression.
The Ottomans were commanded by the 21-year-old Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror. The conquest of Constantinople followed a 53-day siege begun on April 6, 1453.
Christopher Columbus led three ships, the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria, out of the Spanish port of Palos in 1492. His purpose was to sail west until he had reached the Indies, where gold, pearls, and spices awaited. But, he had landed in the Americas, also known as the "New World."
The Era of Absolutism, or the Era of Absolute Rulers, indicates the rise of rulers throughout Europe who had absolute control over their nations. Mercantilism became the initial form of economy. The issue of religion disappeared in European wars, followed by the issue of the balance of power. An example of absolutism is King Louis XIV who ruled from 1638-1715.
The Safavids ruled from 1501-1722 and at their peak, they controlled many modern nations like Iran and Iraq. The Safavids had left a strong legacy in the Middle East. they had spread Shi'a Islam in modern-day Iran, as well as major parts of other countries like Mesopotamia. The Safavids had established an effective state and bureaucracy based on "checks and balances," their architectural innovations, and their keen support for fine arts.
The Reformation, or Protestant Reformation, was the 16th century religious, political, intellectual, and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe. It set in place beliefs and structures that defined Europe in the Modern Era. In Northern and Central Europe, reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin tested holy authority and questioned the Catholic Church's ability to define Christian practice. They fought for religious and political power to be given to the hands of Bible and pamphlet-reading pastors and princes.
The Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty. The rulers were mostly mixed with different Asian and Middle Eastern roots. only the first two rulers were fully Central Asian while other emperors were predominate of Persian and Rajput ancestry. The Mughal Empire is the second largest empire to have ever existed in the Indian subcontinent and began the period of proto-industrialization.
Babur was a Central Asian ruler from 1526-1530 and the second son of Genghis Khan (on his mother's side). Babur had brought his attention to create his empire in North India. He had defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat and started his empire, the Mughal Empire.
The Scientific Revolution refers to the historical changes in thought and belief, to changes in social and social institutional organization, that displayed in Europe. During the Scientific Revolution, people began using experiments and mathematics to understand mysterious. New discoveries were made and old beliefs had begun to be proven wrong. With the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution had also been responsible for the introduction of ideas, like a heliocentric solar system and laws of planetary motion. This era is also known as the period where modern science truly came to success.
The reign of Akbar the Great started in 1556 when he was 14 years old. He was a direct descent of Genghis Khan and his grandfather was Babur, the first emperor of the Mughal dynasty. Akbar had built the largest army ever in the history of the Mughal Empire. He had custody of a regent before claiming imperial power and expanded the Mughal Empire. Akbar had also led in an era of religious tolerance and appreciation for the arts. Akbar the Great died in 1605.
Named after King James I, 104 English men arrived in North America to start a settlement in 1607. This became the first permanent English settlement in North America.
Al-Mansur took advantage of the civil strife in the empire of Songhai in 1590. This led to the Battle of Tondibi in 1591, which was caused by him trying to have total control of the Trans-Saharan trade routes. He had been defeated and the Songhai Empire collapsed.
The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason, had produced several books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars, and revolutions. This era had given way to 19th century Romanticism. French historians commonly place the Enlightenment between 1715, the year King Louis XIV died, and 1789, the beginning of the French Revolution. The most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia. The Age of Enlightenment was introduced by and closely connected with the Scientific Revolution.
The sixth Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb Alamgir, invaded the Hindu kingdoms in Central and Southern India. He had conquered a lot of territories and took many slaves. With this, the Mughal Empire had reached the peak of its military power but was under an unstable ruling.
Th Age of Exploration was the beginning of territorial expansion for a plethora of European countries. Eventually, most of the Western Hemisphere went under the control of European governments. This led to changes in its landscape, population, and plant and animal life.