Mother was a Norman.
Had lived in Normandy for 25 years.
Appointed a Norman as Archbishop of Canterbury.
January 1066 - October 1066
Harold Godwinson - from the powerful Godwin family of Anglo-Danish nobles.
The Norman Invasion
This was led by William, Duke of Normandy.
1066 - 1087
Also known as William, Duke of Normandy.
The Battle of Hastings marked the start of the Norman invasion and conquest of England.
Rebellion against Normans - some of the Anglo-Danish nobles joined an unsuccessful invasion led by King Sweyn of Denmark.
First written record of Jews in England.
Invitation and Settlement of the Jews.
1070 - 1189
Invited by William I from Normandy because they could read, write and do accounts at a time when not even kings were literate. He needed them to help him control the land he had seized.
Domesday Survey set up King William I.
This was to record who owned land, what it was worth and who lived on it.
1087 - 1100
The Crusades - instiated by the pope, Christians began to fight what became known as the Crusades.
1095 - 1291
Their aim was to expel Jerusalem's Muslim inhabitants.
Muslims and Jews were now labelled as non-believers.
1100 - 1135
'Saint' William of Norwich and the start of the 'Blood Libel'
In Norwich on Good Friday 1144, the dead body of a boy called William was found wearing only his jacket and shoes. A local priest and the boy's family accused the city's Jews of the murder and the boy was moved inside the cathedral.
Massacre of Jews in London and York.
1189 - 1190
Persecution of the Jews.
1189 - 1290
King Richard I was to be crowned. When Jewish leaders arrived at Westminster Hall for the coronation they were stripped, beaten, chased and killed.
3 September 1189
King John seized Jewish property, killing or torturing those who resisted.
Jews were made to wear a distinctive yellow cloth.
Jews were expelled from many towns and not allowed to own anything except their houses.
1230 - 1239
A new 'Blood Libel' when the body of a boy called Hugh was found at the bottom of a well in Lincoln. All Jews were accused of planning ritual murder.
Henry III arrested 90 Jews and hanged those who protested, taking their property.
400 Jews murdered on Palm Sunday.
1,000 Jews beaten to death in London.
The pope allowed Italian bankers to charge interest. Jewish moneylenders were no longer needed.
Henry III ordered expulsion of all non-weavers.
Edward I made a law (the Statute of Jewry) that Jews were not allowed to collect interest. Most became so poor that they were forced to 'clip' the edges of coins and melt down the metal to sell.