The succession of technological innovations and changes in human organization that led to the development of agriculture. The period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred and domestication of plants and animals.
Important Production Activities Develop
Production activities like skilled toolmakers and jewelers began to form in the Çatal Hüyük village.
4000 BCE - 1500 BCE
Bronze tools were first introduced to the Middle East. The use of bronze tools began to decline as people began to work with iron.
Metal Tools Form
People began learning how to work with metal like copper.
3500 BCE - 600 BCE
Societies that were distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of nonfarming elites, merchant groups, and manufacturing groups began.
Sumerians Develop Cuneiform
Mesopotamian people who created the first civilization in the region. Developed a cuneiform system which was the first known form of human writing.
3100 BCE - 30 BC
Formed in Mesopotamia, made advancements in writing (hieroglyphics), papyrus sheets, medicine, shipbuilding, and mathematics.
Egyptian Pyramids Form
Approx. 2620 BCE
Holding a great position in society, pharoah's were placed in tombs built as large pyramids.
Indus River Valley Civilization
2500 BCE - 1800 BCE
Large cities such as Harappa emerged near the Indus River. Harappa had houses with running water and citywide drainage systems as well as many buildings for religious ceremonies or community assemblies.
Code of Hammurabi
Babylonia code of law that is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world.
1500 BCE - 500 Bce
The period in India when the Vedas, or the sacred book for Hinduism, was composed.
1200 BCE - 400 BCE
Olmecs are responsible for establishing the first civilization in Mesoamerica and is the forerunner of civilizations such as the Aztecs and Maya.
Ancient Greece Civilizations
Approx. 800 BCE - 146 BCE
Consisted of Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic Periods. Made advancements in art, poetry, and technology.
753 BCE - 476 CE
Creator of modern western alphabet and calendar, the emergence of Christianity as a world religion, and Latin which many romance languages were made. Grew from a small town to a republic and then to a large empire due to military expansion.
600 BCE - 600 CE
Classical civilizations such as China, India, Greece, and Rome develop.
Founded by the prophet Zoroaster, it was the official religion of Persia from 600BCE to 650CE.
Life of the Buddha
563 BCE - 483 BCE
Buddha, the founder of one of the great world religions, Buddhism, was a religious seer and philosopher who wanted to move beyond the rituals associated with sacrifices to gods and the materialistic ways of the priestly class. He created a religion that provided a powerful challenge to the brahmans and many ancient Vedic beliefs.
Classical Greek Philosophy
479 BCE - 322 BCE
Began around 6th century BCE and continued through the Hellenistic Period. Creation of great philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle began in this time period.
Era of Warring States
475 BCE - 221 BCE
Following the Spring and Autumn Period, many chinese states were at war with each other for territory and dominance. Ended with Qin state defeatin all other states and forming Qin dynasty.
Twelve Tables of Rome
Rome's code of law in which patricians, plebeians, and consuls would have to enforce.
431 BCE - 404 BCE
Wars between Athens and Sparta for dominance in southern Greece, which was subjected to Macedonian authority.
The Mauryan Dynasty
322 BCE - Approx. 185 BCE
A young soldier named Chandragupta Maurya seized power along Ganges River which led to him becoming the first ruler of the Mauryan dynasty in India: A dynasty that would be the first to unify the whole subcontinent.
264 BCE - 146 BCE
Arguments between Carthage and Rome led to a series of three different wars until the defeat of Carthage.
Approx. 206 BCE - 220 AD
Following the Qin Dynasty, the Han Dynasty rounded out China's basic political and intellectual structure.
A network of trade routes used by China, India, Persia, Arabia, Greek, and Rome.
27 BCE - 180 CE
Starting with the rule of Augustus Caeser, it was a time of peace in the Roman empire due to minimal Roman military force after the end of the Final War of the Roman republic.
Birth and Death of Jesus
4 BCE - Approx. 30 CE
Jesus is born to Mary and lives life as a preacher of the Jewish Religion. Dies by crucifixion to Pontius Pilate.
Rome divides into Byzantine Empire and Rome as it becomes too large to govern.
Constantine's Conversion to Christianity
Spreading of Christianity led to Constantine adopting it as a new religion.
320 CE - 550 CE
An ancient Indian Empire noted for its achievements in arts, architecture, religion, science, and philosophy.