Huck's Raft

Events

Mayflower Left Plymouth

September 16, 1620

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Massachusetts General Court Order

1648

Massachusetts General Court Ordered the mandatory, weekly catechism of fathers to their children and servants

Connecticut followed the Massachusetts General Court

1650

Connecticut followed the Massachusetts General Court order of mandatory catechism of fathers to their children and servants

New Haven Followed Massachusetts General Order

1655

New Haven followed the Massachusetts General Court order of mandatory catechism of fathers to their children and servants

Great Fire in London

1666

Plymouth followed the Massachusetts General Court order

1671

Plymouth followed the Massachusetts General Court order of mandatory catechism of fathers to their children and servants

Massachusetts uncivil walking

1672

Massachusetts forbade youth, maids and other persons uncivilly walking the streets ad fields of Saturday and Sunday nights

Bacon's Rebellion

1675

Bacon's rebellion arose a warfare against neighboring Indians

Enslaved Africans burial

1697

English in New York allowed enslaved Africans to be buried in a desolate six-acre plot of land outside Manhattan's town limits

Attack on the Frontier Settlement in Deerfield, Massachusetts

February 29, 1704

First Slave Population reproduction

1720 - 1729

African American in the Chesapeake region became the first slave population in the New World to be able to reproduce their own numbers

Great Awakening

1730 - 1740

First Student Rebellions

1740 - 1749

first student rebellions on colonial colleges began

North and South Carolina Slave population reproduction

1760 - 1769

slaves in North and South Carolina, and Georgia were also able to reproduce naturally

Escalation of resistance to British Imperial Authority

1760 - 1769

Formation of Sons of Liberty

1765

Sons of Liberty chapters formed in Boston and New York

Riots in Colonies

1765 - 1769

150 riots in 13 colonies took place

Boycott of Imported Tea

1770

In Boston, more than a hundred young ladies signed an agreement to refrain from buying or consuming imported tea

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

British seized Newport, Rhode Island

December 1776

Sybil Luddington saves Danbury

1777

Sybil Ludington roused local militia to save Danbury, Connecticut from British attack

Town Enlistment Quotas began

1777

First Textile Mill in U.S.

1790

Samuel Slater's mill, first textile mill in the United States, opened in Pawtucket, Rhode Island

Child-savers experimenting new strategies

1790

philanthropists, "child-savers", experimented with new strategies to care for indigent and delinquent children, including the establishments of charity schools, Sunday schools, orphan asylums, house of refuge, and reformatories

Orphan Asylums in U.S.

1800

there were only 6 orphan asylums in the United States

Impulse to control births spread nationwide

1810

War of 1812

1812

War of 1812, Louisiana Purchase

Pension for Revolutionary War Veteran

1818

Congress Enacted pension for Revolutionary War veterans and their widows

New York and Newgate Prison incarceration of Youth

1823

450 children were incarcerated in New York's Bridewell and Newgate prisons

First House of Refuge

1825

New York's first house of refuge admitted its first inmates

Pioneers crossing Mississippi

1830

fewer than 100,000 pioneers crossed the Mississippi

Making cloth by hand was replaced by factory production

1830 - 1839

Economic Panic

1837

economic panic made young men either enter a factory between the ages of 12 and 14, or remain in school into their mid-teens before entering clerkship or another salaried position

ex parte Crouse

1838

a Philadelphia case, ex parte Crouse, establish the legal right to institutionalize children without parental consent

Reform School

1840 - 1849

a number of delinquent and neglected children outstripped the capacity of private benevolent societies, the house of refuge was superseded by a new institution, the reform school.

Tens of Thousands ventured beyond Mississippi

1840

tens of thousands of Americans ventured beyond the Mississippi

Fungus devastating Irish potato

1845

a fungus from America devastated Ireland's basic staple crop, potato

First General Adoption Statuses, Mississippi

1846

State legislature in Mississippi responded to a growing number of request for private adoption bills by enacting the first general adoption statuses, which provided for public registration of private adoption agreements

Transplanting of City Children to Farm Families

1849

example of transplanting city children to farm families pioneered by the Boston Children's Mission

Establishment of Young Men's Christian Association

1849

earliest adult-managed organization for the youth, the Young Men's Christian Association, appeared in Boston

First General Adoption Statuses, Texas

1850

State legislature in Texas responded to a growing number of request for private adoption bills by enacting the first general adoption statuses, which provided for public registration of private adoption agreements

Settlements in California and Oregon County

1850

pioneers pushed the edge of settlement to California and the Oregon county of the Pacific Northwest

New York Orphanage Boom

1850

New York had nearly 100 orphanages

Dickensian Image of Orphanages

1850 - 1859

American orphanages acquired Dickensian image as drab, regimented facilities characterize by harsh discipline, rigid routine, and absence of emotional care.

First Modern Adoption Law

1851

Massachusetts adopted its first modern adoption law, requiring judges to determine whether adoptive parents were of sufficient ability to bring up the child and furnish suitable nurture and education before issuing a decree.

Chinese Immigrants Migration to U.S.

1854 - 1883

Massachusetts State Reform School Fire

1859

a fire at Massachusetts State Reform school for Boys in Westborough underscored the bleak underside of reform-school life.

First Clinic for Treatment of Children's Diseases

1860

First clinic for treatment of children's diseases in New York was established by Abraham Jacobi

Civil War

1861 - 1865

Presidential Announcement of parents' consent for enlisment

1861

President Lincoln announced that the boys under 18 could enlist only with their parents' consent.President Lincoln announced that the boys under 18 could enlist only with their parents' consent.

Slaves fled to Refugee Camps

November 1863

at least 50,00 slaves fled to refugee camps

Institutions for Dead Soldiers' orphans

1865 - 1866

eight states opened institutions to care for dead soldier's orphans

New York state legislation on obscene material

1868

the Young Men's Christian Association persuaded the New York's state legislature to pass a law restricting obscene material

First Societies to prevent Child Cruelty appeared

1870 - 1879

First publicly Financed Kindergarten

1873

first publicly financed kindergarten in St. Louis opened

Comstock Act

7 March 1873

Congress passed the Comstock Act, which made it a crime to distribute obscene materials through mails

First Kidnapping for Ransom

1874

Charles Darwin's Study of Child Development

1877

Charles Darwin inaugurated the specific study of child development

Establishment of Section for Children's Diseases by American Medical Association

1880

American Medical Association established a section on children's diseases, 10 medical schools offered courses in pediatrics and some 700 doctors specialized in treating children's illnesses.

First Home for unwed mothers

1883

Charles Crittenton opened the first home for unwed mothers

Public Schools over Charitable Kindergartens

1888

Boston and Philadelphia public schools took over charitable kindergartens

Society for the Study of Child Nature establisment

1889

the first organization formally dedicated to child study was the Society for the Study of Child Nature, founded by the mothers in Ethical Culture movement in New York city was established

Introduction of Women's Bicycle

1890

introduction of women's bicycle gave women greater freedom to move about in public

National Consumer League founded

1890

First Pure Milk Stations in the U.S.

1893

Nathan Straus, whose family owned Macy's Department Store, opened on of the first pure milk stations in the United States cutting the death rate in New York City's orphan asylum in Randall's Island in half.

Conference of Charities

1893

an official at the Conference of Charities charged that the so-called orphans were placed with people who treat them as slaves

Juvenile Court

1899

Illinois establish juvenile court

Children in Orphanages

1900 - 1909

more than 100,000 children resided in some 1,200 orphanages throughout United States

Mother's right to Guardianship

1900 - 1909

only nine states and the District of Columbia had establish a mother's statutory right to equal guardianship of children

National Children Labor Committee established

1904

First City that require Pasteurization

1908

Chicago became the first city in the world to require pasteurization of the city's milk supply.

55 Child Protection Societies

1908

there were 55 societies devoted exclusively to protecting children from cruelty

Founding of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

1909

descendants of the original abolitionists took a leading role in postwar efforts to establish schools and colleges for African Americans, the struggle against lynching, and the founding of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

First White House Conference on Children

1909

First White house conference on children participants agreed that children should be kept in their own families rather than in warehoused in large institutions

Establishment of Adult-Sponsored Organizations

1910

youth workers established a number of adult-sponsored youth organizations targeted at middle-class teens

Uniform Legal Protection for Children

1911

Beginning with Ohio, states enacted the first children's codes to provide uniform legal protections for children

Mothers' Pension

1911

starting in Illinois, states enacted the mothers' pensions to allow widows to care for their children in their own homes

Kindergarten Enrollment

1912

kindergarten enrollment reached 312,000

Inspection of 26 orphanages in New York City

1914

an inspection of 26 orphanages run by private charities in New York City reported children overworked and underfed, beds alive with vermin, and antiquated modes of punishments.

Juvenile Street Cleaning Leagues

1915

25,000 young people participated in the juvenile street cleaning leagues in New York City

Keating-Owen Child Labor Act

1916

Keating-Owen Bill passed the Congress, prohibiting interstate shipments of products from mines employing children under sixteen or factories using children under fourteen

Influenza Pandemic

1918 - 1919

Influenza Pandemic during WWI killed half a million Americans

Compulsory Education Laws

1918

Every state enacted compulsory education laws, with 31 states requiring attendance until the age of 16

States adoption of Mothers' Pension

1919

39 states and territories in Alaska and Hawaii adopted the mothers' pensions

Constitutional Amendment on Child Labor restrictions

1924

Congress passed a constitutional amendment authorizing legislation to restrict child labor

State adopted Juvenile Court Idea

1925

46 states adopted the juvenile court idea

Last Orphan Train

1929

last orphan train left New York for Sulfur Springs, Texas

Sterilization of mentally ill children

1964

about 60,00 mentally retarded or ill children had been sterilize in hopes of preventing them from reproducing