Racial Timeline

Events

Natives

2300 bc

Jamestown

1607

John Smith

1619

-Wrote in journal about "Negars"
-Globalization/Capitalism: Native Americans, English, African Slaves, Dutch Ships

Slave Law

1620 - 1700

-Matrilinial: Runs through mom's side of the family; smart because if you were born a slave, you'd have to stay a slave; incentive for white males to rape their black female slaves so they could keep their babies as slaves

Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock

1620

American Revolution

1775

Declaration of Independence

1776

-Thomas Jefferson
-Against King because he won't let them go past the Appalachians and steal more land from the Natives

Constitution

1789

10 Slavery Provisions:
-2nd Amendment - Right to Bear Arms: fear of slave revolt and not being able to protect themselves; if President says thee's a war, when President calls the militia, whites won't be able to defend themselves against slaves should they need to

-3/5th Compromise and Electoral College:
-whoever has most population has the most power
-fear north would end slavery through popular vote -> electoral college
-Senate: don't represent people, represent land
-Senators don't represent people, they represent land
-Skew it to benefit states with less population
-Incentive to get more slaves
-Electoral College: always goes in favor of the White Supremacists (Right Side)

Naturalization Act

1790

-Only Free Whites can be American citizens

Lousiana Purchase

1803

-Doubles size of country
-New Orleans: sneak slaves in through here and the land is better

1808

1808

Date the Constitution says slave trade must end
-Virginians producing enough slaves and want to sell excess to other colonies
-4/5 of the 1st 5 Presidents from VA, they make the rules

War of 1812

1812

Star Spangled Banner

1813

-If British win, America not country anymore
-Slaves and hirelings to be killed because they tried to run
-in absence of slaves, no country

Missouri Compromise

1820

-Slavery could be practiced below Mason-Dixon line, couldn't be practiced above it

Indian Removal Act

1828

Nat Turner's Rebellion

1831

-Nat Turner was slave who instigated other slaves to revolt
-After Rebellion, life got significantly harder for slaves for the next 30-40 years
-Not allowed to read or write, have gatherings, churches
-NC law that gives slave owners/renters the right to do anything to their slaves: any law that prevents the ability to kill slave, makes it impossible to own slaves

-Often outcome of failed movements: opposition cracks down

Texas Breaks from Mexico

1836

-Texas leaves Mexico because Mexico abolishes slavery

Texas Becomes State

1845

Civil War

1861 - 1865

1862: South is crushing it; Whites in North riot against Lincoln

Homestead Act

1862

-If you're white person in the North, and you go to land in the Midwest, and manage to squat in it for a year, you can have it

-How?
-sends people out to kill Natives on that land

-46 million white people can trace their wealth to this Act (not including people in the South, Texas Homestead Acts, Florida Homestead Acts, etc)

Reconstruction

1865 - 1877

-North keeps troops in South to enforce new Amendments
-Freed blacks: (1) find family, (2) build schools, (3) build churches
-Introduction of public schools: newly freed blacks have no money and weren't allowed to read while enslaved so no one knows how to read or write

Hayes/TIlden Compromise

1876

Hayes (Republican) becomes president in exchange for pulling troops out of South

Black Codes

1876 - 1896

-Criminalize being black
Ex. in Lousiana it was illegal to steal chicken because blacks were way more likely to commit this crime
-Loitering crime
-Every black male on the 1st of every year has to prove employment under white man - punishable by slavery by corporations, schools

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

-Chinese were here to build railroads
-When RRs done, we kick them out

Jim Crow

1896

-Plessy v. Ferguson: 7-1 vote; separate but equal on the basis of the 14th Amendment; dissent introduces "colorblind", which is racist term

Gentlemen's Agreement

1903

FDR tells Japan not to send more people over

After, increased immigration from East/South Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland ,etc)
-Issue: they're not considered white
White=Protestant

Other Europeans Start Becoming White

1923

Ozawa v. US
-Ozawa claims whiteness (skin pale, culturally white)
-SC says: white isn't color or culture; white is scientific designation

US v. Thind
-Indian man
-scientific - Caucus Mountains stretches to India
-SC says: "common man" - whatever an average white man thinks it is

Immigration Act

1924

immigration Quotas for Different Countries
0 Asians
0 Africans
Some Southern and Eastern Europeans
All the English

Native American Become Citizens

1924

Become Citizens by default

1930 Census

1930

Hindu
Catholic
Jewish
Protestant

All considered races

World War II

1941 - 1945

Hitler says that by trying to build the perfect race he's using American ideas

Korematsu v. United States

1944

SC ruled you can't separate US citizens by race, except in times of national security

GI Bill

1945

White vets get to go to college

Civil Rights Act

1964

-Desegregation
-Voting Rights Act
-Fair Housing Act

Fair Housing Act

1968

Housing loans given to whites

Nixon

1968

-Southern Strategy
-Speak for the "silent majority"
-1st thing, get someone on SC who will oppose blacks -> William Reinquist

Gutted Affirmative Action

1978

Reagan

1980 - 1988

Lee Atwater (member of Reagan's team) says: need to use abstract economic policies that hurt blacks more than whites
Rise of Republican power
-Known racist
-Opposed FHA
-Fires Angela Davis
-Announces Presidential campaign in Philadelphia, Mississippi where freedom riders were lynched
-Hear of aids for the first time - think it's queer people disease
-Black people crime rate decreases
-Black people incarceration rate increases
-Amplifies War on Drugs
-Disenfranchisement
-Appoints Clarence Thomas and John Roberts (who writes book on opposing FHA) to SC

Bill Clinton

1992

Dems lose House of Republicans

1994

First time in 40 years
Gut federal government

SC partially upholds Affirmative Action

2003

"won't need it in 25 years"

Shelby County v Holder

2013

SC rules VRA Unconstitutional