History of the Thirty Years' War(Major Powers)

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Thirty Years' War

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Parts of the War

Hapsburg Triumphs

1618 - 1630

This was the period that the Hapsburg were winning, led by Ferdinand II, and his army of 125,000 men. They crushed the German princes' armies, and also crushed the Bohemian Revolt

Hapsburg Defeats

1631 - 1648

This was the Period where the Protestant Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden turned the tides of the war, driving the Hapsburgs armies out of Northern Germany. Then the rest of the war was dominated by Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin, who teamed up with the Protestants to defeat the Hapsburgs.

War Events

Bohemian Revolt

1618 - 1621

Caused when Ferdinand II closed some Protestant Churches in Prague. This caused some German Protestant princes to challenge Ferdinand II, starting the Thirty Years War

Treaty of Lubeck

1629

The treaty between the Danish and the Romans that restored Holstein to the Danish, but they couldn't intervene in German affairs

Battle of Breitenfeld

1631

Fought between the Swedish and their allies led by King Gustavus vs. the Germans(German Catholic League) led by Maximillian I. It lasted for over 6 hours and gave a victory to the Swedish

Peace of Westphalia

1648

The settlement that ended the Thirty Years' War, and gave many countries that participated parts of the Roman empire. It recognized the independence of the Dutch Republic and Switzerland. It expanded the Peace of Augsburg to include Calvinists, Catholics, and Lutherans. It also separated the Roman Empire.

Treaty of Pyrenees

1659

The treaty between France and Spain that created peace between the countries after the Thirty Years' War, even though they fought between each other for 10 more years. It gave France some parts of the Spanish Netherlands and some territory in parts of Northern Spain. It also said that King Philip IV must agree to the marriage of Maria Theresa to King Louis XIV

Famous People

Ferdinand II

March 20th, 1619

Became the Roman Emperor, and ruled the Hapsburgs during the Thirty Years' War until 1637.

King Frederick V

November 4th 1619

Became King of Bohemia during the Bohemian revolt when the people elected him as King instead of Ferdinand II. Was pressured by the Protestants during his reign, slowly causing him to go insane, which made him increase taxes, and move two tons of gold into Bohemia.

Albrecht von Wallenstein

1625

Supported the Hapsburgs,fought against the Swedish and was defeated by King Gustavus, but succeeded in killing Gustavus, but Wallenstein was killed a few days later.

Christian IV

1625

King of Denmark in Norway during the Thirty Years' War. Supported the Protestants against Ferdinand II.. Ferdinand then gained the support of Albrecht von Wallenstein, who gained an army of 50,000 and defeated Christian in 1626.

King Gustavus Adolphus

1630

King of Sweden who caused several victories against the Hapsburgs, but was killed in the Battle of Lutzen in 1632.

Johann Tserclaes

1632

Also known as the Count of Tilly, he commanded the Catholic armies and defeated the Protestants many times until King Gustavus defeated him in 1632. He was one of the two chief commanders of the holy Roman Empire during the war

Cardinal Richelieu

1635

Chief minister of Louis XIII, he wanted to weaken the power of the Hapsburgs and take the province of Alsace from the Roman Empire, but also to weaken Spain. Died in 1642