The Grammar-Translation Method

1890 - 1910

Students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translationg sentences between the target language and their native language.

Audiolingual Method

1939 - 1945

The Audiolingual Method was developed in the U.S. during the Second War. At that time, the U.S. goverment found it a great necessity to set up a special language-training program to supply the war with language personnel. The informant served as a source of a language for imitation, and the linguist supervised the learning experience.

Total Physical Response Method

1960 - 1969

This method was created by Dr. James J Asher in the 1960s. It is based upon the way that children learn their mother tongue. Parents have language-body conversations with their children, the parent instructs and the child physically responds to this. Example the parent starts saying a word "jump" and demostrating an action, and the children do the action.

Community Language Learning


This method was developed by Charles A. Curran. His application of psychological counseling techniques to learning is known as Counseling-Learning. CLL is also an example of Humanistic approach, since it deals with the emotions and feelings as well as with linguistic knowledge and behavioral skills.

The Silent Way Method


This method represents Gattegnon´s venture into the field of foreing language teaching. It is based on the premise that the teacher should be silent as much as possible in the classroom and the learner should be encourage to produce as much language as possible.

Natural Approach


Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrel developed the "Natural Approach" in the early eighties. "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language- natural communication- in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding".