Ancient World

Events

Neolithic Era

8000 B.C. - 4000 B.C.

Formation of the Mesopotamian city-states; First Dynasties in Egypt ; Old and Middle Kingdoms; era of copper weapons

4000 B.C.

Sumerian Empire of Ur

2100 BC - 2000 BC

Minoan Civilization on Crete

2000 BC - 1400 BC

Emergence of Indo-European peoples

1700 BC - 1500 BC

Mycenaean Civilization; bronze era of weapons

1580 BC - 1120 BC

New Egyptian Kingdom

1567 BC - 1069 B.C.

Moses and Sinai Period

1300 BC

Emergence of Dorian Greeks

1200 BC

Beginning of Iron Age

1200 BC

Fall of Troy in Asian Minor; end of Priam’s kingdom

1154 BC

“Dark Ages” of ancient Greece

1120 BC - 800 BC

Priest/Prophet Samuel appointed Saul, 1st king of Israel

1020 BC

Prophet/King David’s reign of Israel

1000 BC - 960 BC

King Solomon of Israel; division into kingdoms of Israel and Judah

960 BC - 922 BC

Era of Homer, rhapsodist

800 BC - 700 BC

Traditional Date for the founding of Rome in Italy by Romulus

753 BC

Greek colonization begins; era of Hesiod

750 BC - 550 BC

Assyrian Empire

745 BC

The beginning of the rise of tyrants

650 BC

New Babylonian Empire

612 BC - 539 B.C

The poetess Sappho active; lyric poets

600 BC

Thales, first significant Greek philosopher/scientist

590 BC

Solon reforms laws/society of Athens

590 BC

Pythagoras active; era of Archaic art/architecture

582 BC - 507 BC

Pisistratus rules Athens

561 BC - 527 BC

Anaximander proposed that humans are descendants of fish

550 BC

Persian Empire

539 BC - 330 BC

Aeschylus, the first great tragic dramatist

525 BC - 456 BC

Traditional Date for the founding of the Roman Republic

509 BC

Cleisthenes reforms Athenian laws

508 BC

Sophocles, tragic dramatist; e.g., Antigone

496 BC - 406 BC

Persian Wars; Greece victorious

490 BC - 479 BC

Classical Era of art/architecture

490 BC - 336 BC

Euripides, dramatist, e.g., The Bacchae

485 BC - 406 BC

Herodotus, the first major Greek historian; author of Persian Wars

484 BC - 430 BC

Establishment of Delian League

477 BC

Socrates

469 BC - 399 BC

Era of Pericles of Athens (Golden Age of Athens)

460 BC - 439 BC

Hippocrates, first major Greek physician; Hippocratic Oath

460 BC - 377 BC

Thucydides, first critical historical author of Peloponnesian Wars

460 BC - 400 BC

Delian treasury moved to Athens

454 B.C. - 454 BC

Aristophanes, the greatest Greek comic playwright, e.g., The Clouds

450 BC - 385 BC

Democritus further develops concept of materialism/atomism

440 BC

Parthenon completed on the top of the Acropolis of Athens

432 BC

Peloponnesian War; Sparta victorious

431 BC - 401 BC

Plato, student of Socrates; teacher to Alexander; founder of Academy at Athens

427 BC - 347 BC

Aristotle, philosopher and tutor to Alexander the Great

384 BC - 322 BC

Reign of Philip of Macedon

359 BC - 336 BC

Battle of Chaeronea: Philip establishes mastery over Greece

338 BC

Conquest by Alexander the Great—Hellenistic Age of art/architecture/culture; literaturE

336 BC - 323 BC

Rome gains control over Egypt and Greece

146 BC