Rivalries Between the Maritime Powers


Charles V abdicated

Approx. October 1555

When Charles V abdicated, control of the Hapsburg possessions was divided. Charles's son Philip was to rule the Netherlands and Spain while his brother Ferdinand controlled the German and Australian lands.

Antwerp and other large cities rose in rebellion

August 1566

Protestants in Ghent, Antwerp and other cities started to rise in rebellion and began to riot while smashing images.

Philip's response


Then in 1567 Philip responded and sent a large forge of Italian and Spanish soldiers to the Netherlands.

Spain's attack on English Privateers


Spain attacked English privateers because they were illegally trading in the West Indies which increased tensions.

Anglo-Spanish Naval Conflict


Sir Francis Drake attacked Nombre de Dios and ambushed the ships. This brought silver back to Spain

Spanish Government Goes Bankrupt


Elizabeth lent small sums of money to the rebels and she also allowed the English volunteers to help them. However, she did not want to commit troops and provoke an open breach with Spain

Drake's Voyage

1577 - 1580

The Spanish had learned to protect their shipping from the attacks of English privateers, but Drake's unexpected appearance on the Pacific Coast helped him achieve a great prize. Drake and his sailors became popular heroes among the anti-Spanish population.

Union of Arras


The southern provinces formed the Union of Arras, and made peace with Spain.

Union of Utrecht


The northern provinces were led by Willian of Orange and he formed the Union of Utrecht and repudiated Philip's rule

Philip II's Navy


Philip II began building a large navy of his own so that they could attack England. The fleet would bring troops from Spain, and protect the channel to cross to the Netherlands.

Spanish Armada

July 1588 - August 1588

It was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed for 10 days ending in August 1588. This was under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia so that he could invade England.

The Armada Left Corunna

July 12 1588

Armada Sighted off Lizard Head

July 19 1588

First Attack by English Ships

July 21 1588

Second English Naval Attack

July 24 1588

English Sent fire ships into Spanish Fleet

July 28 1588

English sent eight fore ships into the Spanish fleet. The next day, the English was victorious from a general engagement with the Spanish ships.

Spanish Ships Withdrew North

July 30 1588 - August 12 1588

Spanish ships withdrew north until the Firth of Forth

Spanish Fleet Heads Westward

August 13 1588

The remnants of Armada Return to Spain

September 1588

English Raided Cadiz


The English raided Cadiz. They temporarily seized the town and destroyed much of their shipping.

Protugal Sent African Slaves to Brazil


By 1650, Portugal had sent 40,000 African slaves to Brazil. They did this so they can work on the new plantations. The plantations produced 15,000 tons of sugar a year.