When Charles V abdicated, control of the Hapsburg possessions was divided. Charles's son Philip was to rule the Netherlands and Spain while his brother Ferdinand controlled the German and Australian lands.
Protestants in Ghent, Antwerp and other cities started to rise in rebellion and began to riot while smashing images.
Then in 1567 Philip responded and sent a large forge of Italian and Spanish soldiers to the Netherlands.
Spain attacked English privateers because they were illegally trading in the West Indies which increased tensions.
Sir Francis Drake attacked Nombre de Dios and ambushed the ships. This brought silver back to Spain
Elizabeth lent small sums of money to the rebels and she also allowed the English volunteers to help them. However, she did not want to commit troops and provoke an open breach with Spain
The Spanish had learned to protect their shipping from the attacks of English privateers, but Drake's unexpected appearance on the Pacific Coast helped him achieve a great prize. Drake and his sailors became popular heroes among the anti-Spanish population.
The southern provinces formed the Union of Arras, and made peace with Spain.
The northern provinces were led by Willian of Orange and he formed the Union of Utrecht and repudiated Philip's rule
Philip II began building a large navy of his own so that they could attack England. The fleet would bring troops from Spain, and protect the channel to cross to the Netherlands.
It was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed for 10 days ending in August 1588. This was under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia so that he could invade England.
English sent eight fore ships into the Spanish fleet. The next day, the English was victorious from a general engagement with the Spanish ships.
Spanish ships withdrew north until the Firth of Forth
The English raided Cadiz. They temporarily seized the town and destroyed much of their shipping.
By 1650, Portugal had sent 40,000 African slaves to Brazil. They did this so they can work on the new plantations. The plantations produced 15,000 tons of sugar a year.