Babylonian mathematics was based on a base 60, numeric system, which could be counted physically using the twelve knuckles on one hand an the five fingers on the other.

2700 BC - 2300 BC

Babylonian were the first people to assign symbols to groups of objects in an attempt to make the description of larger numbers easier.

2700 BC - 2300 BC

The Babylonians also developed another revolutionary mathematical concept, a circle character for zero, although its symbol was really still more of a placeholder than a number in its own right.

2700 BC - 2300 BC

They used a rudimentary abacus (a calculating tool)

2700 BC - 2300 BC

Early Egyptians began to record the patterns of lunar phases and the seasons, both for agricultural and religious reasons.

2000 BC - 1800 BC

The oldest mathematical text from ancient Egypt discovered so far is the Moscow Papyrus, which dates from the Egyptian Middle Kingdom around 2000-1800 BCE

2000 BC - 1800 BC

The Pharaoh’s surveyors used measurements based on body parts. A palm was the width of the hand, a cubit the measurement from elbow to fingertips.

2000 BC - 1800 BC

Theyre decimal numeric system was developed based on our ten fingers.

2000 BC - 1800 BC

As early as the 8th Century BCE, long before Pythagoras, a text known as the “Sulba Sutras” (or "Sulva Sutras") listed several simple Pythagorean triples, as well as a statement of the simplified Pyth

1000 BC

The abacus was adopted by the Chinese over a thousand years before it was adopted in the West - and it made even quite complex calculations very quick and easy.

650 BC

The Lo Shu Square, an order three square where each row, column and diagonal adds up to 15,dating back to around 650 BCE.

650 BC

The simple but efficient ancient Chinese numbering system, which dates back to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, used small bamboo rods arranged to represent the numbers 1 to 9.

650 BC

They were then placed in columns representing units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. It was therefore a decimal place value system.

650 BC

Democritus was most famous for his prescient ideas about all matter being composed of tiny atoms in the 5th-4th century (BCE)

510 BC

The Heron of Alexandria wrote “Metrica” which contains his now-famous formula for the area of a triangle in 10-75 AD

510 BC - 323 BC

The ancient Greek numeral system, known as Attic or Herodianic numerals, was fully developed by about 450 BC

450 BC

Hippocrates of chio's book The Elements, dating to around 400 BC, was the first complitation of the elements of Geometry

400 BC

Diophantus of Alexandria was the first to recognize fractions as numbers in the 3rd century (BCE)

323 BC - 31 BC

In the 1st century (BCE) Heron (or Hero) was another great Alexandrian inventor, best known for inventing triangles with integer side and integer area

1 BC - 100

Before the 3rd century, indians discovered the benefits of a decimal value number system and were certainly using it.

201 - 300

In the 9th century Arab Thabit ibn Qurra, developed a general formula by which amicable numbers could be derived

801 - 900

In the 10th century Arab mathematician Abul Hasan al-Uqlidisi, who wrote the earliest surviving text showing the positional use of the Arabic numerals and particularly the use of decimals instead of f

900 - 1000

In the 12th century, Nicole oresme used a system of rectangular coordinates centuries before his countrymen

1101 - 1200

Nicholas of Cusa also held some distinctly non-standard intuitive ideas about the universe and the Earth's position in it

1401 - 1500

An important figure in the late 15th and early 16th Centuries is an Italian Franciscan friar called Luca Pacioli, who published a book on arithmetic, geometry and book-keeping at the end of the 15th C

1501 - 1600

During the 16th and early 17th Century, the equals, multiplication, division, radical (root), decimal and inequality symbols were gradually introduced and standardized.

1501 - 1600

In the Renaissance Italy of the early 16th Century, Bologna University in particular was famed for its intense public mathematics competitions

1501 - 1600

Nicholas of Cusa a 15th Century German philosopher, mathematician and astronomer, whose prescient ideas on the infinite and the infinitesimal directly influenced later mathematicians like Gottfried Le

1501 - 1600

The book on arithmetic also introduced symbols for plus and minus for the first time in a printed book

1501 - 1600

Isaac Barrow is usually credited with the discovery (or at least the first rigorous statement of) the fundamental theorem of calculus, which essentially showed that integration and differentiation are

1601 - 1700

The invention of the logarithm in the early 17th Century by John Napier (and later improved by Napier and Henry Briggs) contributed to the advance of science, astronomy and mathematics by making some

1601 - 1700

As early as the 1630s, the Italian mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri developed a geometrical approach to calculus known as Cavalieri's principle, or the “method of indivisibles”

1630

Adrien-Marie Legendre made important contributions to statistics, number theory, abstract algebra and mathematical analysis in the late 18th and early 19th Centuries

1701 - 1800

Basel was the hometown of the greatest of the 18th Century mathematicians, Leonhard Eulea, Swiss mathematician and prominent astronomer, finally provided a rigorous proof in 1761 that π is irrational

1701 - 1800

Arthur Cayley (1821 - 1895) Cayley was a British mathematician whose work is known to students of abstract algebra and linear algebra.

1821 - 1895

The Cayley-Hamilton Theorem for matrices is named after him and William Rowan Hamilton, and a fundamental theorem in group theory, Cayley's Theorem, is due to him.

1821 - 1895

Camille Jordan (1838 - 1922) Like Cayley, Jordan made contributions to both abstract algebra and linear algebra.

1838 - 1922

Emmy Noether (1882 - 1935) is widely considered to be the greatest female mathematician of all time, her most important work was related to abstract algebra, specifically the theory of rings and field

1882 - 1935

The concept of a Noetherian ring, as well as several theorems in algebra, are named in her honor.

1882 - 1935

Abstract algebra (also known as called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures.Algebraic structures include groups,rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices,and algebras.

Approx. 1900

Abstract algebra emerged around the start of the 20th century, under the name modern algebra. Its study was part of the drive for more intellectual rigor in mathematics.

2000

Formal definition through primitive operations and axioms were proposed for many basic algebraic structures, such as groups, rings, and fields.