Guilty person would confess under torture, while God would give an innocent person the strength to resist the pain.
Carl W. Scheele (Swedish Chemist) devised a test for detecting Arsenic in corpses (the inheritance powder)
(Spanish) aka 'Father of Forensic Toxicology' published article on detection of poisons and effects
Photographs (allowed more accurate recording)
Alphonse Bertillon (French) introduced the Bertillon's
system (aka Anthropometry)
The most influential fictional character created
by author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
"Criminal Investigation" by Hans Gross (Austrian) published; the 1st book of criminal investigation using forensic science
Case of misidentiication of two men whose Bertillon's measurements were nearly identical. It led to the end of Anthropometry.
Locard's Exchange Principle by Edmond Locard (French)
When 2 objects come into contact with each other, a cross‑transfer of materials occurs that can connect a criminal suspect to the victim or the crime scene. Locard also started the first known police crime lab.
led by Dr. Paul Kirk