The civilization of Greece

Age

[Early Greece] Minoan civilization-克里特文明

2800 BC - 1450 BC

emerged on island of Crete; collapsed around 1450BC, for volcanic eruption or invasion by mainland Greeks--Mycenaeans

[Early Greece]The first Greek state: Mycenae-迈锡尼

1600 BC - 1100 BC

Indo-European family of peoples; Troy War

Dark Age

1100 bc - 750 bc

3 major group: 1.Ionian 爱奥尼亚人(Territory of Ionia, western shore of Asia Minor); 2.Aeolian Greek 伊奥利亚人(Northern, Central Greece, Lesbos and adjacent territory); 3.Dorians 多里安人(Southwestern Greece, including Peloponnesus and Crete)

Archaic Age of Greece

750 BC - 500 BC
  1. the evolution of the polis as the central institution in Greek life; 2. the Greeks’ colonization of the Mediterranean and Black Seas

Classical Greece

500 BC - 338 BC

The Decline of the Greek States

404 BC - 338 BC

Culture and Society

Aeschylus埃斯库罗斯

525 BCE - 456 BCE

三部曲(a trilogy; a triad ),指情节连贯的三部悲剧,又称三联剧。源于古希腊“悲剧之父”埃斯库罗斯(Aeschylus)的三联剧《奥瑞斯提亚(俄瑞斯忒亚)》(Oresteia),由《阿伽门农(阿格曼侬)》(Agamemnon)、《奠酒人》(Choephori)和《报仇神(复仇之神)》(Eumenides)组成。

Sophocles索福克勒斯

496 BCE - 406 BCE

whose most famous play was Oedipus the King 俄狄浦斯.

Euripides

485 BC - 406 BC

His plots also became more complex and reflected a greater interest in real-life situations. Perhaps the greatest of all his plays was The Bacchae酒神巴克斯, which dealt with the introduction of the hysterical rites associated with Dionysus, god of wine.

Herodotus希罗多德

484 BC - 425 BC

the author of The Persian Wars

Thucydides修昔底德

460 BC - 400 BC

History of the Peloponnesian War

Aristophanes阿里斯托芬

450 BC - 385 BC

Old Comedy: 代表作 The Clouds, Lysistrata (吕西斯特拉忒),

Events

Homer Epics: Iliad and Odyssey

800 BC - 750 BC

Adoption of Phoenician alphabet

799 BC

Around 8th century BC

Love of Wisdom

The Sophists

500 BC - 400 BC

The Sophists were wandering scholars who sold their services as professional teachers to the young men of Greece, especially those of Athens.

Socrates

469 BC - 399 BC

Because he left no writing of his own, we know about him only from his pupils, especially his most famous one, Plato.

Plato

429 BCE - 347 BCE

the greatest philosopher of Western civilization;Plato’s ideas of government were set out in a dialogue he titled The Republic.

Aristotle

384 BC - 322 BC

His interests were wide-ranging, and he wrote treatises on an enormous number of subjects: ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physics

Sparta

Conquest of Messenia

730 BC - 710 BC

Messenia(麦西尼亚) turned into helots(希洛人(斯巴达农奴))

Beginning of Poleponnesian league

560 BC - 550 BC

Spartans establish military state

500 BC

Spartans had organized a powerful
military state

Athens

Solon's reform

594 BC - 593 BC

Tyranny of Pisistratus

560 BC - 556 BC

Tyranny of Pisistratus

546 BC - 527 BC

Pisistratus庇西特拉图

Deposition of Hippias---end of tyranny

510 BC

Hippias 庇西特拉图的儿子西庇阿斯

Cleisthenes' reforms

508 BC - 501 BC

克里斯提尼改革:foundation of Athenian democracy

Greco-Persian Wars

Ionian Revolt

499 BC - 493 BC

unsuccessful revolt, led the Persian ruler Darius(大流士) to seek revenge

Greco-Persian Wars

499 BC - 449 BC

希波战争

Marathon Battle

490 BC

attack and defeated the Persians decisively

2 Battle of Salamis [萨拉米斯战役]

480 BC

Greeks won

1 Battle of Thermopylae [温泉关战役]

480 BC

Xerxes(薛西斯一世)led 15000 fighter; King Leonidas (列奥尼达一世)and the three hundred Spartans fought to the last man.

3 Battle of Plataea [普拉提亚战役]

479 BC

Last battle, Greeks won

Form of Delian League [提洛同盟]

478 BC - 477 BC

Age of Pericles

461 B.C. - 429 B.C.

Peace of Callias

449 BCE

The Peace of Callias is a purported treaty established around 449 BC between the Delian League (led by Athens) and Persia, ending the Greco-Persian Wars.

The Great Peloponnesian War

Parthenon

447 BC - 432 BC

The master builders Ictinus and Callicrates directed the construction of this temple consecrated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens.

The Great Peloponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC

Death of Pericles

421 BC

Battle of Aegospotami

405 BC

伊哥斯波塔米战役A crushing blow came in 405 B.C. when the Athenian fleet
was destroyed at Aegospotami on the Hellespont. 雅典战败的直接导火索。

Athens surrendered

404 BC

Its walls were torn down, the navy was disbanded, and the Athenian Empire was destroyed.