emerged on island of Crete; collapsed around 1450BC, for volcanic eruption or invasion by mainland Greeks--Mycenaeans
Indo-European family of peoples; Troy War
3 major group: 1.Ionian 爱奥尼亚人(Territory of Ionia, western shore of Asia Minor); 2.Aeolian Greek 伊奥利亚人(Northern, Central Greece, Lesbos and adjacent territory); 3.Dorians 多里安人(Southwestern Greece, including Peloponnesus and Crete)
三部曲（a trilogy; a triad ），指情节连贯的三部悲剧，又称三联剧。源于古希腊“悲剧之父”埃斯库罗斯（Aeschylus）的三联剧《奥瑞斯提亚（俄瑞斯忒亚）》（Oresteia），由《阿伽门农（阿格曼侬）》（Agamemnon）、《奠酒人》（Choephori）和《报仇神（复仇之神）》（Eumenides）组成。
whose most famous play was Oedipus the King 俄狄浦斯.
His plots also became more complex and reflected a greater interest in real-life situations. Perhaps the greatest of all his plays was The Bacchae酒神巴克斯, which dealt with the introduction of the hysterical rites associated with Dionysus, god of wine.
the author of The Persian Wars
History of the Peloponnesian War
Old Comedy: 代表作 The Clouds, Lysistrata (吕西斯特拉忒),
Around 8th century BC
The Sophists were wandering scholars who sold their services as professional teachers to the young men of Greece, especially those of Athens.
Because he left no writing of his own, we know about him only from his pupils, especially his most famous one, Plato.
the greatest philosopher of Western civilization;Plato’s ideas of government were set out in a dialogue he titled The Republic.
His interests were wide-ranging, and he wrote treatises on an enormous number of subjects: ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physics
Messenia（麦西尼亚） turned into helots（希洛人（斯巴达农奴））
Spartans had organized a powerful
克里斯提尼改革：foundation of Athenian democracy
unsuccessful revolt, led the Persian ruler Darius（大流士） to seek revenge
attack and defeated the Persians decisively
Xerxes（薛西斯一世）led 15000 fighter; King Leonidas (列奥尼达一世)and the three hundred Spartans fought to the last man.
Last battle, Greeks won
The Peace of Callias is a purported treaty established around 449 BC between the Delian League (led by Athens) and Persia, ending the Greco-Persian Wars.
The master builders Ictinus and Callicrates directed the construction of this temple consecrated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens.
伊哥斯波塔米战役A crushing blow came in 405 B.C. when the Athenian fleet
was destroyed at Aegospotami on the Hellespont. 雅典战败的直接导火索。
Its walls were torn down, the navy was disbanded, and the Athenian Empire was destroyed.