-Neanderthals create things such as fire, communities, weapons, and more
-They eventually move from hunter gatherers to farmers
-Pastoralists popped up soon after once domestication of animals became more common
-Sargon= First ruler of the Akkadian empire. Known for conquering Sumerian city-states
-Abraham= Settled Canaan, major figure in several different religions
-Cro-magnon= Early name for humans
-Hammurabi=Wrote one of the first legal codes to exist
-Later on, bronze is gotten which leads to the creation of weapons as well as armor which is used to protect civilizations
-King Menes= United the Upper and Lower dynasties of Egypt
-Old Kingdom(2686 BCE- 2181 BCE) Women were highly respected, pharaoh was the most important person in Egypt
-Middle Kingdom(2055 B.C.-1650 B.C.)Priests and nobles gain independence, classic period of culture, literature, and language
New Kingdom(1550 B.C.-1070 B.C.) Priests had tremendous power, brought luxury, power and wealth for Egypt.
Ashoka Maurya- Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent
Chandra Gupta- founder of the Maurya Empire
Siddhartha Gautama- Founded Buddhism
Mauryan Dynasty-Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India
Gupta Dynasty-ancient Indian empire founded by Sri Gupta.
Buddhism-Life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment
Shang dynasty-Ancestor worship/Oracle Bones
Zhou dynasty- Mandate of heaven, starts warring states.
Warring states period- Leads up to the Qin dynasty
Vedas- Sacred text of Hindus
Solidification of caste system- The caste system provided ranking for the people of India
Oracle Bones- Used to predict
-From the findings of bronze the world is put into a position of increasing power
-Nearly everything was made from bronze for battle. Swords, spears, shields, and more.
Confucious- Taught several teachings
Laozi-ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
Qin Shihuangdi-founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
Qin Dynasty- Unified China/ terracotta warriors
Han Dynasty-Established the silk road
Daoism- a Chinese philosophy based on the writings of Lao-tzu advocating humility and religious piety
Legalism- Strict form of government used by the Qin
-First set of written laws
-Punishments at the time depended on social class
-This made way for more solid governments to come.
Olmecs- First ancient civilization of South America
Mayan- One of the biggest tribes to settle in South America
Land bridge- Used by early humans to migrate to America while following buffalo
Islands are settled throughout Oceania
-During the Iron Age, tools were commonly made of steel and alloys. These were much cheaper, stronger and lighter than the bronze materials used previously, which is why their use became more predominant.
-Iron was a good material to make tools, implements and utensils because it could be hammered into shape and didn’t need to be carved.
-This leads to more advancements in warfare.
-Made plows, and therefore agriculture, more efficient
Pericles-prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens
Plato- philosopher in Classical Greece
Alexander The Great-a king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon
Socrates-classical Greek philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy.
Aristotle-ancient Greek philosopher and scientist
Darius- Rules the empire at its peak
Achaemenid empire- First Persian empire
Julias Caesar-Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Trajan- Huge military expansion
Constantine- Made Christianity the official religion of Rome
Jesus of Nazareth-Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity.
Roman Republic- era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom
Roman Empire-government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea
Pax Romana- long period of relative peacefulness and minimal expansion by the Roman military force
Christianity- Eventually spreads throughout the empire
Diocletian- Roman emperor
Attila-ruler of the Huns
Germanic Invasions-series of wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes
Fall of Rome-process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule