The earliest record of application of forensic science
1500 - 1600
Guilty person would confess under torture, while God would give an innocent person the strength to resist the pain.
U.S. Postal Inspection Services Laboratories
1772 - Present
Carl W Scheele
Devised a test for detecting Arsenic (the inheritance powder) in corpses
1800 - 1899
Allowed ME's to determine cause of deaths
Valentin Ross (German)
Discovered more precise method for detecting small amounts of Arsenic.
Mathieu Orilla (Spanish)
'Father of Forensic Toxicology'; published article on detection of poisons and effects.
Polarizing Microscope Invented
Allowed the discovery of more physical evidence.
British Home Office Metropolitan Police Laboratory (Scotland Yard)
Located in Britain
1st use of toxicology evidence in criminal trial
First microscopic detection of sperm
1850 - 1860
Allowed ore accurate recording.
1st presumptive test for blood
Alphonse Bertillion (French)
Introduced Bertillon's system (Anthropometry); a system for identifying people by their physical appearance and was considered the most accurate method of personal identification for for almost 20 years. Was replaced by fingerprinting in 1903.
1887 - 1893
The most influential fictional character created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. His influence can be compared to that of modern CSI shows today.
Jack the Ripper
London was terrorized by serial killer 'Jack the Ripper'.
"Criminal Investigation" by Hans Gross (Austrian)
The first book of criminal investigation using forensic science.
1900 - 1999
Father of Modern Microscopy.
ABO blood typing
Discovered by Karl Landsteiner.
Will West Case
Case of misidentification of two men who's Bertillon's measurements were almost identical, leading to the end of Anthropometry.
Published by Albert Osborn
Locard's Exchange Principle by Edmond Locard (French)
When 2 objects come into contact with each other, a cross-transfer of materials occurs that can connect a criminal suspect to the victim or the crime scene. Locard also started the first known police crime lab.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Laboratories
Located in Canada. Centre of Forensic Sciences (Toronto). The Institute of Legal Medicine and Police Science (Montreal).
Los Angeles PD Crime Lab
First crime lab in USA.
University of California at Berkeley Criminalistics Department
Led by Dr. Paul Kirk.
FBI National Laboratory opens
Opened under Director J. Edgar Hoover.
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
1968 - Present
Analyze drugs seized in violation of federal laws.
United States Army Criminal Investigation Laboratories (USACIL)
Located in Fort Gillem, Ellenwood, GA.
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Laboratories (ATF)
1972 - Present
analyze alcoholic beverages, weapons, and explosive devices.
FBI Forensic Science Research and Training center opens