History of forensic science

Events

3RD CENTURY IN CHINA

201 AD - 300 AD

the earliest form of forensic science: the pig and smoke experiment.(was a man dead already or did the smoke kill him?)

BEFORE 17TH CENTURY

1601 - 1700

Guilty person would confess under
torture, while God would give an
innocent person the strength to 
resist the pain.

CARL W. SCHEELE (SWEDISH CHEMIST)

1775

developed a test in where the detector would change color with the contact of skin, given that they contained Arsenic (the inheritance powder)

VALENTIN ROSS (GERMAN)

1806

discovered more precise 
method for detecting small amounts of Arsenic. Chemical tests (allowed for detection of concealed evidence)

MATHIEU ORILLA (SPANISH)

1814

aka the father of forensic toxicology. he published an aricle on detection of poisons and 
effects, which mainley helped the ME'S.
Chemical tests (allowed for detection of concealed evidence)

SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMNTS

1828

Polarizing microscope invented. (Microscopes (allowed for the discovery of more physical 
evidence))

TOXICOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

1839

1st use of toxicological evidence in criminal trial

SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENTS

1839

first microscopic detection of  sperm

PHOTOGRAPHS

1850 - 1860

Photographs (allowed more accurate recording)

PRESUMPTIVE TEST

1863

1st presumptive test for blood

ALPHONSE BERTILLON (FRENCH)

1879

introduced the Bertillon's 
system (aka Anthropometry)

a system for identifying people by their physical appearance
was considered to be the most accurate method of personal 
identiication for nearly 2 decades
replaced by ingerprinting in 1903

SHERLOCK HOLMES

1887 - 1893

The most inluential ictional character  created 
by author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle; his inluence 
can be compared to that of the modern CSI shows today.

JACK THE RIPPER

1888

London terrorized by a serial killer "Jack the Ripper"

HANS GROSS (AUSTRALIAN)

1893

"Criminal Investigation" by Hans Gross (Austrian) 
published; the 1st book of criminal investigation using forensic science

KARL LANDSTEINER

1901

ABO blood typing discovered by him

WILL WEST CASE

1903

Case of misidentiication of two men  whose 
Bertillon's  measurements were nearly identical.  
It led to the end of Anthropometry.

ALBERT OSBORN

1910

"Questioned Documents" published by Albert Osborn

LOCARD'S EXCHANGE PRINCIPLE

1913

by Edmond Locard (French)
When 2 objects come into contact with each other, a cross‑
transfer of materials occurs that can connect a criminal 
suspect to the victim or the crime scene.  Locard also started the first known police crime lab.

HISTORY OF CRIME LABS IN THE US

1923

Los Angeles PD Crime Lab (the first in USA)

HISTORY OF CRIME LABS IN THE US

1930

University of California at Berkeley Criminalistics 
Department led by Dr. Paul Kirk

HISTORY OF CRIME LABS IN THE US

1932

FBI National Laboratory opens under Director J. Edgar Hoover

HISTORY OF CRIME LABS IN THE US

1981

FBI Forensic Science Research & Training Center opens

WALTER McCRONE

2000

'Father of Modern Microscopy'
EXTREMELY GOOD