AP World History

East Asia

Xia dynasty

2100 B.C.E

This dynasty was said to have lasted for 400 years but some speculate it never existed because of limited evidence.

Shang dynasty

1750 B.C.E

Known for using oracle bones to speak to the gods. Dynasty lasted 600 years.

Zhou dynasty

1050 B.C.E

This dynasty is known for creating the mandate of heaven. Lasted 900 years.


580 B.C

Founded by Laozi followers seek happiness and wisdom by way of the path or dao.


560 B.C

A philosophical thinking that contrasts confusionism and daoism and is focused more on peoples behavior and social order.


551 B.C

A philosopher whose thoughts and beliefs began the foundation of confusionism.

Warring states period

500 B.C.E

Time when China was divided and many groups fought with each other over rule which never lasted very long.

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE

Founded by Qin Shihuangdi, was very brief only lasting until 207 B.C.E but was memorable because of the cruelness of the leader.

Han Dynasty

141 B.C.E

Founded by Han Wudi, who is considered the most significant leader of the Han developed innovating techniques that set a precedent for the future. The yellow turban rebellion caused this dynasty to end because farmers were unhappy about land distribution and overthrew the government.

Southeast Asia

South Asia

Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

2250 B.C.E

Two sophisticated civilizations in the Indus River valley founded by the Dravidians.

Caste system

1500 B.C.E

A social system based on religion that emphasizes on social stratification.


800 B.C.E

A collection of Aryan religious hymns, poems, and songs.


530 B.C

Religion founded by Siddhartha Gautama. Buddhists are summarized in the four noble truths and their main goal is to reach enlightment.


400 B.C.E

A collection of religous thought that talked about bhrama dharma and kharma.

Mauryan Dynasty

301 B.C

This dynasty was founded by Chandra gupta. His grandson, Ashoka Maurya. At this time no dynasty in northern india compared to this powerful dynasty.

Gupta dynasty


Final major indian dynasty in the classical era. They had many scientific and mathematic achievements.

Middle East

The Epic of Gilgamesh

2750 B.C.E

Possibly the first story ever written. It tells about the life of a real king named Gilgamesh who ruled the city state of Uruk. The story was written on 12 clay tablets in cuneiform script.


2000 B.C.E

Abraham is said to have founded the Hebrew religion.


1710 B.C.E

Hammurabi ruled all of Mesopotamia for 40 years and was the most powerful leader for the Babylonians'.

North and Central Asia


559 B.C

Began under Cyrus the Great and was known as the first Persian empire.


522 B.C

Darius ruled the Persian empire for about 60 years and conquered many civilizations.



450 B.C

A great Greek thinker who taught Plato who became a great philiosopher that kept socrates thoughts alive.

Alexander the Great

336 B.C.E

Led Greece for 13 years and conquered everyone who came in his way. He was destined for greatness from a young age. He was tutored by the legendary philosopher Aristotle.

Augustus Caesar

70 B.c

Octavion was proclaimed Augustus Caesar because of all the good he did for the Roman empire nd the next 200 years became known as Pax Romana or Roman peacetime.

End of Roman Republic and begging of Roman Empire

46 B.C.E

The end of the Roman republic came when Julius Caesar defeated Pompey and became a dictator for life and formed the Roman Empire.

Split of Roman Empire


Diocletian split the Roman Empire into East and West.

Christianity in the Roman Empire


Constantine made christianity the official religion of the Romans who used to kill people for being chrstian. Jesus of Nazareth is a main figure of christianity who preched love and peace.



Attila was a barbaric ruler of the Huns who assailed the Roman Empire.

Fall of Rome


The fall of Rome came because of interior and exterior forces. The main exterior force that caused it to fall were Germanic Invasions.



8,000 B.C.E

Early Humans roamed the Earth hunting and gathering and eventually developed farming which began the development of civilizations. This was considered the agriculture revolution.

Pastoralists in Egypt

5500 B.C.E

Pastoralism began to develop in Egypt

King Menes

3100 B.C.E

King Menes united lower and upper Egypt in 3100 B.C.E.

Old Kingdom- Egypt

2660 B.C.E

The old kingdom had a strong central government which was led by a pharaoh. Noble classes grew stronger and protested the pharaohs which created civil unrest which led to the fall of the old kingdom.

Middle Kingdom- Egypt

2040 B.C.E

Mentuhotep reunited Egypt and the Pharaohs of the middle kingdom took a new approach. The y preached loyalty to the people. The kingdom fell when outside forces attacked.

New Kingdom- Egypt

1570 B.C.E

During this period the Egyptians had a powerful army and worshiped a sun god. The decline of this empire began when Rameses died.



1500 B.C

Mayans began to establish small settlements and overtime developed an advanced civillization. At its peak they had 2 million people.

Olmec Civilization

1200 B.C.E

One of the first civilizations in the americas and had a lot of influence on future civilizations.

Chavin civilization

1000 B.C.E

Existed near the Andes mountains and lasted about 800 years.


Pacific Peoples

5000 B.C.

The first people who arrived in Oceania were hunter-forgers could move easily between the islands because of the low sea level.