two cities in pakistan. part of the indus river valley.
Unknown if it really exists, but there were a few records found about it.
Oracle bones, ancestor veneration.
The most ancient Hindu scriptures.
Oracle bones are pieces of shell or bone, typically from ox scapulae or turtle shells due to their flat surfaces. They were used in as a form of divination in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty
Mandate of Heaven
Creator of Daoism.
The creator of Confucianism.
Kong Fuzi started it. Analects (book of sayings). Sunyi are superior individuals who are educated, moral, and wise. FILIAL PIETY is very important. Corresponds with the Mandate of Heaven. Embraced by the government.
the want to live in natural harmony. Founded by Laozi. Daodejing is the book of Daoism. Live as simple as possible. Yin and Yang.
Punishment and reward. A harsh philosophy.
Years of battle caused legalism, Confucianism, and Daoism to emerge.
A famous confucian.
Shihuangdi led the dynasty. Standardized the currency, weights, and measurements.
Emperor of the Qin dynasty. Practiced legalism. Cruel leader. Died by taking mercury tablets trying to live forever.
Civil service exam allowed social mobility. One of the longest and most influential dynasties. Centralized rule. Spread Confucianism. Big gap between poor and rich leading to Yellow Turban rebellion and the fall of the Han dynasty.
A female historian who was a mix of Confucianism and Daoism, wrote how women should behave and how a marriage should work. A very educated woman for her time.
Peasant rebellion. Poor people were unhappy. Led to the Han downfall.
Aryans settled in India and initially distinguished themselves by skin color. It then developed to reflect jobs and money, with many sub castes forming.
The teachings of Siddhartha Gautama are considered the core of Buddhism: after his death, the community he founded slowly evolved into a religious-like movement which was finally established as a state religion in India by the time of Emperor Ashoka, during the 3rd century BCE.
a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama) and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment
Centralized govt. divided into provinces. led by a prince.
Most celebrated Mauryan ruler. Brought large regions of India together. Converted to Buddhism, and helped spread Buddhism.
Founder of the Mauryan empire
Golden Age in India. Trade increased.
an extinct species of human with a receding forehead and prominent brow ridges.
a hominid of a tall erect race of the Upper Paleolithic. classified as Homo Sapiens.
Neolithic city, one of the first cities ever.
yellowish brown alloy
first ruler of the Akkadian empire. Known for the conquest of many Sumerian city-states.
a sheep or cattle farmer. nomadic herder.
a sheep or cattle farmer. nomadic herder.
Patriarch of Christianity, Judaism, and Muslim religions.
a story about a man who talks about afterlife as a city of dust that is very desolate.
6th king of 1st babylonian dynasty. impemented Hammurabi's Code, which was the first written rules ever.
Led the Persians to conquering a bunch of land from the Aegan Sea to the border of India.
When Cyrus then his son ruled. First Persian empire. United Mesopotamia Egypt and India. Very diverse.
Persian ruler. He divided land into provinces. Created the "satrap" aka the eyes and ears of the king.
a strong, hard magnetic silvery-gray metal.
When hunter-gatherers settled down and began farming, leading to the growth of civilizations.
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athens' political and cultural supremacy in Greece; he ordered the construction of the Parthenon (died in 429 BC) Example of: statesman. a man who is a respected leader in national or international affairs.
Greek philosopher. As represented in the writings of his disciple Plato, he engaged in dialogue with others in an attempt to define ethical concepts by exposing and dispelling error (the Socratic method).
Plato was a student of Socrates and later became the teacher of Aristotle. He founded a school in Athens called the Academy. Most of his writings are dialogues. He is best known for his theory that ideal Forms or Ideas, such as Truth or the Good, exist in a realm beyond the material world.
Aristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre. He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates.
Dominated a huge amount of land, helped spread Greek culture very far.
Menes was the king who succeeded in accomplishing the unification of Egypt.
The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization
The Middle Kingdom has been labeled by historians as a the Golden Age due to the economic, social and political stability of the time period. Trading, arts and literature all flourished in the Middle Kingdom.
It was a time of wealth, prosperity, and power. The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Egyptian Dynasties ruled during the New Kingdom. They included some of the most famous and powerful of all the Egyptian pharaohs such as Ramses II, Thutmose III, Hatshepsut, Tutankhamun and Akhentaten.
Beringia. Eskimos traveled across a land bridge.
Mesoamerican people inhabiting southeast Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, whose civilization reached its height around ad 300-900. The Maya are noted for their architecture and city planning, their mathematics and calendar, and their hieroglyphic writing system.
a member of a prehistoric people inhabiting the coast of Veracruz and western Tabasco on the Gulf of Mexico ( c. 1200–400 BC), who established what was probably the first Meso-American civilization.
An early pre-Incan civilization that flourished in northern and central Peru from about 900 to 200 BC, known for its carved stone sculptures and boldly designed ceramics.
a member of the ancient Moche people of northern Peru. Second civilization in the Andes mountains. Mysteriously vanished, probably ended in civil war and violence. Built homes around their two temples.
Often referred to as the Mayan bible.
The Roman Republic is the period from the (perhaps apocryphal) overthrow of the last Roman king, Lucius Tarquinius, in 509 BC by the Roman nobility until the establishment of a permanent imperial dictatorship under Augustus (Octavian) Caesar in 27 BC.
Roman emperor 284–305; full name Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus. Faced with mounting military problems, in 286 he divided the empire between himself in the east and Maximian in the west. Diocletian launched the final persecution of the Christians (303).
Also called Octavian (before 27 b.c.) (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ; Augustus Caesar) 63 b.c.–a.d. 14, first Roman emperor 27 b.c.–a.d. 14: reformer, patron of arts and literature; heir and successor to Julius Caesar. 2. a title of office given to rulers of the Roman Republic after Octavianus.
Period of peace in Rome
The Roman Empire began when Augustus Caesar became the first emperor of Rome (31 BCE) and ended, in the west, when the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic King Odoacer (476 CE).
Leader of Christianity
belief in one god and heaven and hell and sin, etc. Started in Rome by jesus
Roman emperor. His reign is noted for the many public works undertaken and for the Dacian wars , which ended in the annexation of Dacia as a province.
Rome fell due to many things including disease and people leaving.
Roman emperor who accepted Christianity and is a huge reason why it spread.
frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, and Alans among others, on the territory of Central and Eastern Europe.