AP World


East Asia

harappa and mohenjo daro

2500 B.C.E

two cities in pakistan. part of the indus river valley.

Xia Dynasty

2200 BCE - 1766 BCE

Unknown if it really exists, but there were a few records found about it.

Shang Dynasty

1600 BC - 1050 BC

Oracle bones, ancestor veneration.


1500 BCE - 500 BCE

The most ancient Hindu scriptures.

oracle bones

1200 bc - 1050 bc

Oracle bones are pieces of shell or bone, typically from ox scapulae or turtle shells due to their flat surfaces. They were used in as a form of divination in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty

Zhou Dynasty

1122 BCE - 256 BCE

Mandate of Heaven


600 BCE - 500 BCE

Creator of Daoism.


551 BCE - 479 BCE

The creator of Confucianism.


Approx. 500 BCE

Kong Fuzi started it. Analects (book of sayings). Sunyi are superior individuals who are educated, moral, and wise. FILIAL PIETY is very important. Corresponds with the Mandate of Heaven. Embraced by the government.


500 BCE

the want to live in natural harmony. Founded by Laozi. Daodejing is the book of Daoism. Live as simple as possible. Yin and Yang.


Approx. 475 BCE - Approx. 207 BCE

Punishment and reward. A harsh philosophy.

Warring States

403 BC - 221 BC

Years of battle caused legalism, Confucianism, and Daoism to emerge.


372 BCE - 289 BCE

A famous confucian.

Qin Dynasty

221 bce - 202 bce

Shihuangdi led the dynasty. Standardized the currency, weights, and measurements.

Qin Shihuangdi

221 BCE - 210 BCE

Emperor of the Qin dynasty. Practiced legalism. Cruel leader. Died by taking mercury tablets trying to live forever.

Han dynasty

Approx. 202 BC - 220 AD

Civil service exam allowed social mobility. One of the longest and most influential dynasties. Centralized rule. Spread Confucianism. Big gap between poor and rich leading to Yellow Turban rebellion and the fall of the Han dynasty.

Ban Zhao

45 ce - 116 ce

A female historian who was a mix of Confucianism and Daoism, wrote how women should behave and how a marriage should work. A very educated woman for her time.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

Approx. 184 CE

Peasant rebellion. Poor people were unhappy. Led to the Han downfall.

Southeast Asia

South Asia

Solidification of the Caste System

1500 bce

Aryans settled in India and initially distinguished themselves by skin color. It then developed to reflect jobs and money, with many sub castes forming.

Siddhatha Gautama

530 bce

The teachings of Siddhartha Gautama are considered the core of Buddhism: after his death, the community he founded slowly evolved into a religious-like movement which was finally established as a state religion in India by the time of Emperor Ashoka, during the 3rd century BCE.


520 bc

a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama) and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment

Mauryan Dynasty

321 BCE - 185 BCE

Centralized govt. divided into provinces. led by a prince.


268 BCE - 232 BCE

Most celebrated Mauryan ruler. Brought large regions of India together. Converted to Buddhism, and helped spread Buddhism.

Chandra Gupta I


Founder of the Mauryan empire

Gupta Dynasty

320 CE - 550 CE

Golden Age in India. Trade increased.

Middle East


Approx. 200000 bc - Approx. 30000 bc

an extinct species of human with a receding forehead and prominent brow ridges.


Approx. 140,000 BCE - Approx. 10,000 BCE

a hominid of a tall erect race of the Upper Paleolithic. classified as Homo Sapiens.

Catal Huyuk

7500 bc - 5700 bc

Neolithic city, one of the first cities ever.


Approx. 3500 bc

yellowish brown alloy


Approx. 2370 BCE - Approx. 2315 BCE

first ruler of the Akkadian empire. Known for the conquest of many Sumerian city-states.


2100 BCE

a sheep or cattle farmer. nomadic herder.


2100 BCE

a sheep or cattle farmer. nomadic herder.


Approx. 2000 BCE

Patriarch of Christianity, Judaism, and Muslim religions.

Epic of Gilgamesh

Approx. 2000 BCE

a story about a man who talks about afterlife as a city of dust that is very desolate.


Approx. 1792 BCE - Approx. 1750 BCE

6th king of 1st babylonian dynasty. impemented Hammurabi's Code, which was the first written rules ever.

Cyrus the Great

559 bc - 530 bc

Led the Persians to conquering a bunch of land from the Aegan Sea to the border of India.

Achaemenid Empire

558 BCE - 330 BCE

When Cyrus then his son ruled. First Persian empire. United Mesopotamia Egypt and India. Very diverse.

darius tegen scythen

522 bce - 486 bce

Persian ruler. He divided land into provinces. Created the "satrap" aka the eyes and ears of the king.



a strong, hard magnetic silvery-gray metal.

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

When hunter-gatherers settled down and began farming, leading to the growth of civilizations.

North and Central Asia



495 bc - 429 bc

Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athens' political and cultural supremacy in Greece; he ordered the construction of the Parthenon (died in 429 BC) Example of: statesman. a man who is a respected leader in national or international affairs.


470 BC - 399 BC

Greek philosopher. As represented in the writings of his disciple Plato, he engaged in dialogue with others in an attempt to define ethical concepts by exposing and dispelling error (the Socratic method).


428 BC - 348 BC

Plato was a student of Socrates and later became the teacher of Aristotle. He founded a school in Athens called the Academy. Most of his writings are dialogues. He is best known for his theory that ideal Forms or Ideas, such as Truth or the Good, exist in a realm beyond the material world.


384 BC - 322 BC

Aristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre. He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates.

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

Dominated a huge amount of land, helped spread Greek culture very far.



3100 BCE

Menes was the king who succeeded in accomplishing the unification of Egypt.

Old Kingdom

2700 BCE - 2200 BCE

The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization

Middle Kingdom

2000 B.C.E - 1800 B.C.E

The Middle Kingdom has been labeled by historians as a the Golden Age due to the economic, social and political stability of the time period. Trading, arts and literature all flourished in the Middle Kingdom.

New Kingdom

1550 BCE - 1070 BCE

It was a time of wealth, prosperity, and power. The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Egyptian Dynasties ruled during the New Kingdom. They included some of the most famous and powerful of all the Egyptian pharaohs such as Ramses II, Thutmose III, Hatshepsut, Tutankhamun and Akhentaten.


"land bridge" migration to americas

15000 bce

Beringia. Eskimos traveled across a land bridge.


1500 BC - 900 CE

Mesoamerican people inhabiting southeast Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, whose civilization reached its height around ad 300-900. The Maya are noted for their architecture and city planning, their mathematics and calendar, and their hieroglyphic writing system.


1200 BCE - 400 BCE

a member of a prehistoric people inhabiting the coast of Veracruz and western Tabasco on the Gulf of Mexico ( c. 1200–400 BC), who established what was probably the first Meso-American civilization.


900 BCE - 200 BCE

An early pre-Incan civilization that flourished in northern and central Peru from about 900 to 200 BC, known for its carved stone sculptures and boldly designed ceramics.


200 BCE - 700 CE

a member of the ancient Moche people of northern Peru. Second civilization in the Andes mountains. Mysteriously vanished, probably ended in civil war and violence. Built homes around their two temples.

Popul Vuh

700 CE

Often referred to as the Mayan bible.


settlement of islands through oceania

4000 bce - 700 ce


Roman Republic

509 BC - 27 BC

The Roman Republic is the period from the (perhaps apocryphal) overthrow of the last Roman king, Lucius Tarquinius, in 509 BC by the Roman nobility until the establishment of a permanent imperial dictatorship under Augustus (Octavian) Caesar in 27 BC.


313 bc - 254 bc

Roman emperor 284–305; full name Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus. Faced with mounting military problems, in 286 he divided the empire between himself in the east and Maximian in the west. Diocletian launched the final persecution of the Christians (303).

germanic invasions

100 bce

Julius and Augustas Caesar

60 B.C.E - 30 B.C.E

Also called Octavian (before 27 b.c.) (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ; Augustus Caesar) 63 b.c.–a.d. 14, first Roman emperor 27 b.c.–a.d. 14: reformer, patron of arts and literature; heir and successor to Julius Caesar. 2. a title of office given to rulers of the Roman Republic after Octavianus.

Pax Romana

27 BC - 180 AD

Period of peace in Rome

Roman empire

27 BCE - 476 CE

The Roman Empire began when Augustus Caesar became the first emperor of Rome (31 BCE) and ended, in the west, when the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic King Odoacer (476 CE).

Jesus of Nazareth

4 BCE - 30 CE

Leader of Christianity


32 CE

belief in one god and heaven and hell and sin, etc. Started in Rome by jesus


98 AD - 117 AD

Roman emperor. His reign is noted for the many public works undertaken and for the Dacian wars , which ended in the annexation of Dacia as a province.

Fall of Rome

300 ce

Rome fell due to many things including disease and people leaving.

Constantine adopts Christianity


Roman emperor who accepted Christianity and is a huge reason why it spread.

split of rome

330 ce

rome split


434 - 453

frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, and Alans among others, on the territory of Central and Eastern Europe.