Ancestor Veneration, oracle bones, and a polytheistic religion
1045 BCE - 400 BCE
Mandate of Heaven- the idea that a just ruler's power was bestowed by the gods.
Laozi- founder of Daoism
Era of Warring States
475 BCE - 221 BCE
Was very divided and lasted many years, no centralized government. Daoism, Legalism (Qin Shihuangdi), and Confucianism (Confucius)
221 BC - 220 BC
Shihuangdi- uniformed measurements, weight, and currency.
189 CE - 220 CE
Han Wudi- Increased infrastructure, and continued uniform currency. Fell becacuse of internal government issues and the Yellow Turbin Rebellion (peasant uprising) which caused a decentralized government.
Harrapa and Mohenjo Daro
2600 BC - 1900 BC
Environmental degradation probably caused the disappearance
1499 BCE - 322 BCE
Vedas- religious hymns, poems, and songs,
Upanishads- collection of religious thoughts; Brahma, dharma, karma, and moksha.
Caste System- Brahmins, Kshatryias, Vaishyas, Shudras.
Buddhism (Siddhartha Guatama)
321 BCE - 232 BCE
Had provinces ruled by a prince, under power of the emperor.
320 CE - 550 CE
4500 BCE - 540 BCE
The first people here were the Sumerians and were polytheistic. The Babylonians came next with king Hammurabi ( Code of Hammurabi) Then the Phoenicians who had a 22 letter alphabet. Then the Hebrews, then the Hebrews with Abraham.
Athens and Sparta
Philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristotle...) Direct democracy
Sparta had a very powerful military
559 BCE - 330 BCE
Included the Persian wars agasint greek city-states. Under the leadership of cyrus the great, the Achaemenid Empire was formed. Darius was the next great ruler.
509 BCE - 27 BCE
Most Romans at this time were plebians. Law of the Twelve Tables. Not a large civilization.
27 BCE - 476 CE
Julius Caesar added conquests for Rome. After Julius Caesar died, Octavian took power and dramatically increased the infastructure. Agustus Caesar (Julius's nephew)
The Romans were primarily polytheistic up until Christianity (a monotheistic religion which appealed to everyone; inlcuding slaves and women.) Christianity began spreading quickly. Jesus of Nazareth had many followers who would spread his teachings. Paul is one of the most important people in spreading the religion. At first, the religion was persecuted, but the Emporer Constantine declared the religion legalized and became the official religion of Rome. The Pax Romana was a time of peace. The empire fell and split into the Byzantium rule.
3500 BC - 3000 BC
Neandertal, hunter and gatherers, modern human supposedly came out of north Africa
2660 BCE - 1070 BCE
The old kingdom introduced the pharaoh (two female pharaohs- Cleopatra and Hatshepsut) The pyramids were built inthis kingdom for pharaohs.
King Menes- United Upper and Lower Egypt.
1200 BCE - 400 BCE
Traded with civilizations up to 250 miles away.
1000 BCE - 200 BCE
Present day Mexico. Known for techniques in gold, silver, and copper metallurgy