May or may not have existed.
Ancestor Veneration, oracle bones, and a polytheistic religion
Mandate of Heaven- the idea that a just ruler's power was bestowed by the gods.
Laozi- founder of Daoism
Was very divided and lasted many years, no centralized government. Daoism, Legalism (Qin Shihuangdi), and Confucianism (Confucius)
Shihuangdi- uniformed measurements, weight, and currency.
Han Wudi- Increased infrastructure, and continued uniform currency. Fell becacuse of internal government issues and the Yellow Turbin Rebellion (peasant uprising) which caused a decentralized government.
Environmental degradation probably caused the disappearance
Vedas- religious hymns, poems, and songs,
Upanishads- collection of religious thoughts; Brahma, dharma, karma, and moksha.
Caste System- Brahmins, Kshatryias, Vaishyas, Shudras.
Buddhism (Siddhartha Guatama)
Had provinces ruled by a prince, under power of the emperor.
The first people here were the Sumerians and were polytheistic. The Babylonians came next with king Hammurabi ( Code of Hammurabi) Then the Phoenicians who had a 22 letter alphabet. Then the Hebrews, then the Hebrews with Abraham.
Philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristotle...) Direct democracy
Sparta had a very powerful military
Included the Persian wars agasint greek city-states. Under the leadership of cyrus the great, the Achaemenid Empire was formed. Darius was the next great ruler.
Most Romans at this time were plebians. Law of the Twelve Tables. Not a large civilization.
Julius Caesar added conquests for Rome. After Julius Caesar died, Octavian took power and dramatically increased the infastructure. Agustus Caesar (Julius's nephew)
The Romans were primarily polytheistic up until Christianity (a monotheistic religion which appealed to everyone; inlcuding slaves and women.) Christianity began spreading quickly. Jesus of Nazareth had many followers who would spread his teachings. Paul is one of the most important people in spreading the religion. At first, the religion was persecuted, but the Emporer Constantine declared the religion legalized and became the official religion of Rome. The Pax Romana was a time of peace. The empire fell and split into the Byzantium rule.
Neandertal, hunter and gatherers, modern human supposedly came out of north Africa
The old kingdom introduced the pharaoh (two female pharaohs- Cleopatra and Hatshepsut) The pyramids were built inthis kingdom for pharaohs.
King Menes- United Upper and Lower Egypt.
Traded with civilizations up to 250 miles away.
Present day Mexico. Known for techniques in gold, silver, and copper metallurgy