AP World History


East Asia

Xia Dynasty

2100 BCE - 1500 BCE

May or may not have existed.

Shang Dynasty

1570 BC - 1045 BC

Ancestor Veneration, oracle bones, and a polytheistic religion

Zhou Dynasty

1045 BCE - 400 BCE

Mandate of Heaven- the idea that a just ruler's power was bestowed by the gods.
Laozi- founder of Daoism

Era of Warring States

475 BCE - 221 BCE

Was very divided and lasted many years, no centralized government. Daoism, Legalism (Qin Shihuangdi), and Confucianism (Confucius)

Qin Dynasty

221 BC - 220 BC

Shihuangdi- uniformed measurements, weight, and currency.


189 CE - 220 CE

Han Wudi- Increased infrastructure, and continued uniform currency. Fell becacuse of internal government issues and the Yellow Turbin Rebellion (peasant uprising) which caused a decentralized government.

South Asia


Harrapa and Mohenjo Daro

2600 BC - 1900 BC

Environmental degradation probably caused the disappearance


1499 BCE - 322 BCE

Vedas- religious hymns, poems, and songs,
Upanishads- collection of religious thoughts; Brahma, dharma, karma, and moksha.
Caste System- Brahmins, Kshatryias, Vaishyas, Shudras.
Buddhism (Siddhartha Guatama)

Mauryan Dynasty

321 BCE - 232 BCE

Had provinces ruled by a prince, under power of the emperor.

Gupta Dynasty

320 CE - 550 CE

Chandra Gupta

Middle East


4500 BCE - 540 BCE

The first people here were the Sumerians and were polytheistic. The Babylonians came next with king Hammurabi ( Code of Hammurabi) Then the Phoenicians who had a 22 letter alphabet. Then the Hebrews, then the Hebrews with Abraham.

Athens and Sparta

650 BCE

Philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristotle...) Direct democracy
Sparta had a very powerful military

Persian Empire

559 BCE - 330 BCE

Included the Persian wars agasint greek city-states. Under the leadership of cyrus the great, the Achaemenid Empire was formed. Darius was the next great ruler.


Roman Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

Most Romans at this time were plebians. Law of the Twelve Tables. Not a large civilization.

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 476 CE

Julius Caesar added conquests for Rome. After Julius Caesar died, Octavian took power and dramatically increased the infastructure. Agustus Caesar (Julius's nephew)
The Romans were primarily polytheistic up until Christianity (a monotheistic religion which appealed to everyone; inlcuding slaves and women.) Christianity began spreading quickly. Jesus of Nazareth had many followers who would spread his teachings. Paul is one of the most important people in spreading the religion. At first, the religion was persecuted, but the Emporer Constantine declared the religion legalized and became the official religion of Rome. The Pax Romana was a time of peace. The empire fell and split into the Byzantium rule.


Pre History

3500 BC - 3000 BC

Neandertal, hunter and gatherers, modern human supposedly came out of north Africa


2660 BCE - 1070 BCE

The old kingdom introduced the pharaoh (two female pharaohs- Cleopatra and Hatshepsut) The pyramids were built inthis kingdom for pharaohs.
King Menes- United Upper and Lower Egypt.



1200 BCE - 400 BCE

Traded with civilizations up to 250 miles away.

The Chavin

1000 BCE - 200 BCE

Present day Mexico. Known for techniques in gold, silver, and copper metallurgy


Mochica society

300 CE - 700 CE