AP World Quarter 1 Timeline

Events

Neandertal

Approx. 128,000 BCE - 26,000 BCE

A subspecies of humans who lived in Europe and Southwest Asia from around 130,000 years ago to until around 28,000 years ago

Cro- Magnon

Approx. 40000 BCE - Approx. 8000 BCE

Cro- Magnon- early homo-sapiens that lived around 40,000 BCE years ago

“Land Bridge” Migration to Americas

18,000 BCE

“Land Bridge” Migration to Americas- 20,000 years ago people were believed to have traveled across a region between Siberia and Alaska that was dry land when sea levels were low

Agricaultural Revolution-

Approx. 8000 BCE - Approx. 5000 BCE

Agricultural Revolution- 8000 BCE; a set of dramatic changes in how people lived based on the development of agriculture

Catal Huyuk

Approx. 7000 BCE - Approx. 5000 BCE

Catal Huyuk- founded in 7500 BCE, a city in present day Turkey along a river that is now dried, lasted for around 2000 years

Pastorilissts

Approx. 6000 BCE

Pastoralists- people began to practice pastoralism around 6000 or 5000 BCE

Settlement of islands throughout Oceania

5000 BCE

Settlement of islands throughout Oceania- around 5000 to 2500 BCE and the next thousand years Austronesian speakers migrated to islands on rafts and small boats because of low sea levels

Bronze

Approx. 3300 BCE

Bronze- Bronze Age began in different places between 3300 BCE and 2300 BCE, melting tin and copper to make a stronger metal

Menes

3100 BCE

Menes- united the upper and lower kingdoms of Egypt around 3100 BCE and established the capital city of Memphis

Epic of Gilgamesh

Approx. 2750 BCE

Epic of Gilgamesh- maybe the oldest written story; about a Sumerian King who ruled Uruk somewhere between 2750 BCE and 2500 BCE

Old Kingdom

2660 bc - 2160 bc

Old Kingdom- 2660-2160 BCE; kings and queens ruled as theocrats from Memphis; kingdom split to upper and lower kingdoms as noble class grew stronger and a drought that caused famine and starvation and over 100 years of civil wars

Harappa and Mohenjo- Daro

2500 BCE - 2000 BCE

Harappa and Mohenjo- Daro- 2500- 2000 BCE two urban centers in the Indus River Valley; had a written language made of pictographs that hasn’t been deciphered and had sewage systems; both cities eventually disappeared

Sargon of Akad

2334 BCE - 2279 BCE

ruled in Mesopotamia from 2334 to 2279 BCE

Shia (Xia) Dynasty

Approx. 2100 BCE - 1700 BCE

Shia (Xia) Dynasty- around 2100 BCE; lasted for around 400 years; had no writing so information was recorded around a thousand years later; debated whether it really existed

Middle Kingdom

2040 BC - 1780 BC

Middle Kingdom- 2040-1786 BCE; Mentuhotep II took power, moved capital to Thebes and reunited Europe under a central government; pharaohs expanded Egypt's size; ended after an invasion from the Hyksos from Modern Syria

Abraham

Approx. 2000 BCE

Abraham- father of Judaism, left Mesopotamia to settle in Canaan around 2000 BCE

Hammurabi

1792 BC - 1750 BC

Hammurabi- the babylonians most powerful king, who ruled for over 40 years and conquered all of Mesopotamia; known for the Code of Hammurabi; 1790 BCE until 1750 BCE

Oracle Bones

1766 BCE - 1122 BCE

Oracle Bones- during Shang Dynasty, the bones were used to tell the future

Shang Dynasty

1750 BCE - 1160 BCE

Shang Dynasty- began around 1750 BCE, ruled for around 600 years; had kings that set up a centralized dynasty, known for use of oracle bones and ancestor veneration

New Kingdom

1570 BCE - 1070 BCE

New Kingdom- 1570- 1070 BCE; Ramses the Great became pharaoh around 1290 BCE expanded the empire into Southwest Asia becoming a target for invaders; after Ramses death Egypt suffered repeated invasions and internal revolts Egypt dismantled

“Solidification” of Caste System-

Approx. 1500 BCE

“Solidification” of Caste System- began in 1500 BCE in India; a classification of social hierarchy

Vedas

Approx. 1500 BCE

Vedas- not exactly known but around 1500 BCE; a collection of Aryan songs, hymns, and poems, written in Sanskrit

Maya(n)

Approx. 1500 BC - Approx. 900 CE

Maya(n)- 1500 BCE- around 900 CE in mesoamerica; height was 200- 900 CE; built large step pyramids; had city-states

Olmecs

Approx. 1200 BCE - Approx. 400 BCE

Olmecs- flourished in central and east Mexico from1 200 to 400 BCE; traded interregionally, built large earthen pyramids, had a calendar and number system, and a written language made of glyphs

Iron

Approx. 1200 BCE

Iron- dominate tool making material was iron; began in different places between 1200 and 600 BCE

Zhou Dynasty

Approx. 1100 BCE - Approx. 200 BCE

Zhou Dynasty- began around 1100; longest dynasty ruling for about 900 years, China’s first Golden Age; introduced the mandate of heaven

Chavin

1000 BCE - 200 BCE

Chavin- existed from 1000- 200 BCE in modern day Peru; developed 3 urban systems with over 10,000 people in each; developed irrigation systems

Laozi

600 BCE - 500 BCE

Laozi- also called the Old Master, founder of Daoism, had many disciples who gathered into the Dao De Jing (The Classic Way and The Virtue)

Siddhartha Gautama

563 BCE - 483 BCE

Siddhartha Gautama- also known as Siddhartha Buddha, son of a a king, realized his privilege and renounced his life and began a spiritual quest, at Bodh Gayahe in India he sat in meditation beneath “the Bodhi tree,” and he reached enlightenment

Cyrus

559 BC - 529 BC

Cyrus- ruled Persia 559- 529 BCE; conquered most of the lands west of the Aegean sea to the borders of India

Confucianism-

551 BCE

Confucianism- started by Confucius born 551 BCE, filial piety- the duty of family members to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family or the ruler, women had few rights, kind benevolent virtuous leaders wanted

Confucius

551 BCE - 479 BCE

Confucius- born 551 BCE; philosopher K’ung Fu- tzu, his ideas became the foundation of Confucianism

Achaemenid Empire

550 BCE - 330 BCE

Achaemenid Empire- 550- 330 BCE; First Persian Empire started by Cyrus the Great

Buddhism

Approx. 530 BCE

Buddhism- started by Siddhartha Gautama, four noble truths: 1 all life involves suffering, 2 all suffering stems from desires for worldly pleasures and material things, 3 suffering can end when one eliminates all of ones earthly desires, 4 desires can end when be eliminated by following Buddhisms eight fold path, nirvana is a peaceful state in the after life reaching it would mean ending the cycle of pain and rebirth and the pain that goes with it

Darius

522 BCE - 486 BCE

Darius- ruled Persia 522- 486 BCE; divided conquered lands into provinces, made Persepolis the capital city, made the royal roads, made caravanserai, and established a common currency

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

Roman Republic- plebeians and patricians,

Daoism-

500 BCE

Daoism- founder is Laozi in late 500 BCE, followers seek happiness and wisdom by way of the path, or Dao, key symbol of Ying, humanities in submissive and "feminine" side and Yang humanities aggressive and "masculine" side, keep the two sides in balance, nature and human involvement

Era of Warring States-

475 BCE - 221 BCE

Era of Warring States- 475- 221 BCE; period of warring in China that ended with the Qin dynasty

Socrates

469 bc - 399 bc

Socrates- athenian, emphasized continually asking questions to systematically clarify another persons ideas and to identify the core of them became known as the Socratic Method, put to death by athenian govt. for questioning the state religion

Pericles

461 B.C. - 429 B.C.

Pericles- ruled Athens from 461 to 429 BCE, rebuilt Athens, credited with reforms to government such as transfer of power to the assembly, created the Council of 500 served as an ongoing govt. of Athens, which ruled on chargers of leagal violations

Plato

428 BC - 348 BC

Plato- Athenian, student of Socrates, opened a school called the Academy taught students to question the nature of ideas such as good, evil, justice, and beauty, wrote dialogues, teachings presented as discussions between Socrates and his pupils, most famous was "the republic"- philosopher kings

Aristotle

384 BCE - 322 BCE

Aristotle- one of Platos students, believed in avoiding extremes in behavior called the Golden Mean, emphasized gaining knowledge through empiricism trusting what one learned from observation and evidence rather than emphasizing intuition or religious beliefs, fociused on logic the science of the formal principles of nature, wrote Poetics set down definitions of tragedy and comedy in theater epic and lyric poetry

Mencius-

372 BC - 289 BC

Mencius- Chinese philosopher who is the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself

Chandra Gupta Maurya

340 BCE - 290 BCE

Chandra Gupta Maurya- started maurya first empire in acient India, unifying India for the first time in histiry, grandson of Sri Gupta and father of Ashoka the Great

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

Alexander the Great- father was Phillip of Macedonia, extended Greek influence all the way to India, believed in intermarriage with Persians to cement relations with them, spread greek influence all over, greek colonies were established

Mauryan Dynasty

321 BCE - 185 BCE

Mauryan Dynasty- divided into provinces each ruled with a prince with a council of ministers, emperor had its own council, army kept peace in empire and a large spy system kept government informed, large costs were paid for by heavy taxes on landowners and the value of the crops that farmers raised

Ashoka Maurya

304 BCE - 232 BCE

Ashoka Maurya- third Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from the Hindu Kush to the Bay of Benga from 268 to 232 BCE, Buddhist after blood campaign from Kalinga, earliest known bans on slavery and capital punishment; life, tolerance, compassion and peaceful co-existence were the cornerstones of his administration

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 206 BCE

started by Qin Shiuangdi ended after a Qin genral led a revolt, rebels seized emperor and royal families and killed them, any books not in there beliefs were burned, network of walls were being built in the north

Qin Shihuangdi-

221 BCE - 210 BCE

Qin Shihuangdi- in 221 BCE raised his own army and defeated the rest of the Zhou leaders, known for harsh rule, started short Qin dynasty, standardized script, coinage, weight, and measurement

Mochica

200 BCE - 700 CE

Mochica- 200 BCE- 700 CE; developed in the Andes, northern Peru, after the Chavin

Yellow Turban Rebellion

184 BCE

Yellow Turban Rebellion- scarves worn by peasants were yellow, death toll probably reached several million, probably one of the bloodiest until 1900s

Julius Caesar

Approx. 46 BCE - 44 BCE

Became dictator for life in 46 BCE after defeating Pompey, he increased size of the senate, revised the calendar, extended citizenship, and added conquest for rome as far away as the Geraman forests and Egypt, attacked and killed on the "Ides of March" (march 15, 44 BCE)

Augustus Caesar

27 BCE - 14 CE

Defeated Antony at the battle of Actium and declared himself the sole ruler of Rome, goals were to strengthen family value, keep the peace, and promote prosperity, "I found rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marble" "Veni, vidi, vici"

Pax Romana

27 BCE - 180 CE

Pax Romana- long period of relative peacefulness and minimal expansion by the Roman military force experienced by the Roman Empire

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 1453 CE

Roman Empire- first emperor was Octavian Augustus Caesar, split into eastern and western empires eastern was byzentine empire

Jesus of Nazareth

4 BCE - 30 CE

Jesus of Nazareth- regarded as a trouble maker by roman official, spread his teachings throughout the roman world, jewish preacher

Christianity

35 CE

Christianity- grew out of Judaism, stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus of Nazareth

Ban Zhao-

45 CE - 120 CE

Ban Zhao-unofficial historian to Emperor Ho, completed historical books of her deceased brother, ku, wrote many literary works including her famous Lessons for Women

Trajan

53 CE - 117 CE

Trajan- Roman emperor from 98 to 117 AD, often called a "soilder-emporer", helped expand the empire, known to be kind

Germanic Invasions

200 CE - 500 CE

Germanic Invasions- placed a threat and helped cause an end to the Roman Empire

Han Dynasty- Confucianism is state Doctrin

206 CE - 220 CE

Han Dynasty- Han Wudi wast most significant emperor over saw vast expansion, civil service exam, Silk Roads Chang'an the capital at end, paper 365.25 day calender, and iron plow invented

Diocletian

244 CE - 311 CE

Diocletian- rose quickly through the ranks of the military, understood that there was a major problem in ruling a territory as big as the Roman Empire

Constantine

274 CE - 337 CE

Constantine- emperor of the Byzantine roman Empire became emperor in 305 CE, in 313 CE he declared Christianity the official religion in the Edict of Milan, first christian empire, in 330 CE he moved the seat of government to Constantinople

"split" of the Roman Empire

285 CE

By 285 CE the Roman Empire had grown so vast that it couldn't be governed from one place, Emperor Diocletian divided the empire into halves with the Eastern Empire governed out of Byzantium (later Constantinople) and the Western Empire governed from Rome.

Gupta Dynasty

320 CE - 550 CE

Gupta Dynasty- second and last major empire of the Classical Era, golden age for India, trade increased during peaked, preformed first inoculations, because of contact increases with China Buddhism spread, upper children studied the vedas, universities were devoted to study of specific subjects

Attila

434 CE - 453 CE

Attila- Huns were a nomadic people who left the steppes of Central Asia, traveled to Europe and threatened what was left of Rome's empire, murdered his brother to become sole leader, threatened the rule of the Roman Empire

"Fall" of Rome

476 AD

"Fall" of Rome- the west half or Rome fell first
-decrease and disease in trade
-tax results from upper class and church exempt from taxes
-decrease in aqueducts major labor
-Germanic invasions
-split of empire

Popul Vuh

700 CE

Popul Vuh- the creation story of the Maya

Upanishads

Approx. 800 CE

Upanishads- around 800 CE; interaction of Aryan and Dravidian beliefs resulted in a collection of religious thought that made several new concepts, brahma, dharma, karma, and moksha