Chronology of Political and Literary Events in Early Medieval England 1150-1350

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The Norman Conquest

1066 - 1204

The norman Conquest meant that England would be bound up in French affairs for a long time. The French King Phillip II invades and conquers Normandy. Most of the Normans in England decide to stay and become English. Most of the Normans in France become French. The Normans themselves effectively cease to exist.

Willian the Conquerer

1066 - 1087

William Rufus

1087 - 1100

Henry I

1100 - 1135

Hugues de Payens founds order of Knights Templar

1118 - 1312

Order abolished in 1312

Terrible anarchic days of the futile Stephen

1135 - 1153

Turmoil over the throne between Matilda (daughter of Henry I) and Stephen

Henry II

1153 - 1189

Henry II vs. Louis VII

1167 - 1168

Quarrel results in forbidding English scholars access to learning in France.

Richard I, Couer de Lion

1189 - 1199

The Owl and the Nightengale

1189

1794 line debate poem speculated to have been written by Nicholas of Guildford sometime between the death of Henry II (1189) and the accession of Henry III (1216)

Layamon's Brut

1199

First treatment of Arthurian material in English; verse chronicle, written sometime between 1199 and 1225

John Lackland

1199 - 1216

Cambridge University founded in England

1209

Ormulum or Orrmulum

1210

On paleographic grounds, dated c. 1210, but date lacks provenance. Homilectic work containing 20,152 lines: these extant lines represent only about an eighth of the complete text as envisioned by the author; the rest may have been lost of never written.

Magna Charta

1215

Henry III

1216 - 1272

Dominican Friars come to England

1221

Franciscan Friars come to England

1224

Henry III issues proclamation in English

1265

Edward I

1272 - 1307

Great Parliament of 1295

1295

Knights and burgesses from English shires and towns summoned. First representative parliament.

Edward I deposes John Balliol from Scottish throne

1296

Battle of Cambuskenneth

1297

Scottish patriot William Wallace defeats English Army

Battle of Falkirk

1298

Edward I defeats Wallace and reconquers Scotland

Execution of William Wallace

1305

Robert Bruce leads Scottish rebellion, becomes King of Scotland

1306

Edward I dies on march north to crush Bruce

1307

Edward II

1307 - 1327

Battle of Bannockburn

1314

Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent

The Harley Lyrics 2253

1320

Collection of poems containing mixed lyrics (secular and religious) thought to be composed in the early 14th century, though date is contestable.

Treaty of Northampton

1328

Acknowledged Robert Bruce as King of Scotland and abolished feudal ties between England and Scotland.

The Hundred Years War

1338 - 1453

The Black Death

1348 - 1350

Killed off from one third to one half of the population