The norman Conquest meant that England would be bound up in French affairs for a long time. The French King Phillip II invades and conquers Normandy. Most of the Normans in England decide to stay and become English. Most of the Normans in France become French. The Normans themselves effectively cease to exist.
Order abolished in 1312
Turmoil over the throne between Matilda (daughter of Henry I) and Stephen
Quarrel results in forbidding English scholars access to learning in France.
1794 line debate poem speculated to have been written by Nicholas of Guildford sometime between the death of Henry II (1189) and the accession of Henry III (1216)
First treatment of Arthurian material in English; verse chronicle, written sometime between 1199 and 1225
On paleographic grounds, dated c. 1210, but date lacks provenance. Homilectic work containing 20,152 lines: these extant lines represent only about an eighth of the complete text as envisioned by the author; the rest may have been lost of never written.
Knights and burgesses from English shires and towns summoned. First representative parliament.
Scottish patriot William Wallace defeats English Army
Edward I defeats Wallace and reconquers Scotland
Robert Bruce defeats Edward II and makes Scotland independent
Collection of poems containing mixed lyrics (secular and religious) thought to be composed in the early 14th century, though date is contestable.
Acknowledged Robert Bruce as King of Scotland and abolished feudal ties between England and Scotland.
Killed off from one third to one half of the population