The first evidence points to the Indus River Valley civilization developing around 2500 BCE. Archaeological evidence suggests that early Hindu practice begins here.
Abraham is born in 1813 BCE. God chooses Abraham to be the father of Isaac, the founder of the Jewish people. This people will be special to God, as well as an example of holiness to others around the world.
Around 1713 BCE, Abraham circumcises himself, and this act symbolizes the covenant between God and all his descendants. Under this covenant, God promises to make Abraham the father of a great nation, and to give his descendants the land that later becomes Israel. This is the basis for male circumcision in the Jewish faith.
The Vedic Age which was the period in which the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, the Vedas, are written, begins. This period signaled the rise of large, urbanized areas and the shramana movements.
For several hundred years, the Jews are enslaved in Egypt. Moses, a Jewish man raised as an Egyptian prince, is appointed God's prophet. He lead his people out of enslavement on a journey to Canaan which was known as the Exodus. During this time, Moses presents the Israelites with the Ten Commandments and forms a new covenant with God, which lays the foundation for the Jewish religion.
King Solomon of Israel builds his crowning achievement, the First Temple, on Mount Moriah. This temple houses the Ark of the Covenant, a holy relic that contains the Ten Commandments. Several hundred years later, the temple is destroyed by the Babylonians.
The eleven major Upanishads are written around 800 BCE, and these become fundamental texts of Hinduism. These introduce the ideas of reincarnation and karma, that those who are righteous in the current life will be reborn in a better life until they eventually reach Nirvana, or the holy bliss.
The Assyrians conquer the kingdom of Israel and force the ten tribes to resettle in other parts of the empire, according to Assyrian custom. The scattering of the tribes is the beginning of the Jewish diaspora, or living away from Israel, which characterizes much of Jewish history. Jewish diaspora continued from that time forward.
Taoism founded; Tao-Te Ching written by Lao Tze.
Confucius was born in the chinese state of Sung, during the Spring and Autumn period into a position of low nobility.
The Epics, and the Puranas, are written around 500 BCE. These signal the beginning of devotional Hinduism, in which followers commit themselves to one deity, particularly Shiva or Vishnu, though Devi is popular as well.
Siddhartha Gautama was born around 490 BCE in northern India His parents belong to the Shakya caste, and his father is a respected head of the community. Although he is relatively wealthy, Gautama is exposed to human suffering from an early age.
Their leader had passed away.
He leaves home around 461 BCE to search for a solution to human suffering. For about six years he practices yoga and experiments with extreme asceticism as he tries to find answers.
After realizing that extreme asceticism will not help him solve the problem of human suffering, Gautama sits under a ficus tree and becomes enlightened. He is known as "the Buddha," or "the enlightened one." He realizes that his thinking was the only obstacle to freeing himself from his cares, and that if he separates himself from his human desires, he will no longer suffer.
After becoming the Buddha, Gautama gives his first sermon in a deer park called Sarnath, near the city of Varanasi. Known as the time when the Buddha "set in motion the wheel of the law," this sermon is the first time he explains the four noble truths, the eightfold path towards ending suffering, and the middle way between asceticism and luxury. Shortly afterwards, Gautama gains his first disciples, Sariputra and Mahamaudgalyayana, and the monastic community of Sangha is established.
Under the reign of King Sosurim of the Kingdom of Koguryo, Buddhism enters Korea in 372.
Formal teachings of Confucius
Chuang-Tzu further develops Taoist philosophy.
Chandragupta founds the Maurya Empire in the Indian subcontinent around 320 BCE, which goes on to become one of the world's largest empires in its time. Hindu ministers, including Chanakya, initially introduce Hinduism as the major religion of the empire, but under Ashoka's leadership, the empire later embraces Buddhism.
Emperor Ashoka, who rules India between 268 and 232 BCE, adopts Buddhism as India's state religion after regretting the carnage of war. Under his patronage, Buddhist missionaries travel around Asia, monks are given political influence, and Buddhist ideas are generally accepted. Ashoka's rule plays a crucial role in the spread of Buddhism.
Qin Dynasty ordered the Confucius to destroy all of the books.
Period of the Han dynasty.
Alexander the Great's successors launch a campaign of Hellenization in Israel, and they erect a statue of Zeus in the second Temple of Jerusalem and outlaw Jewish observances. The Jews revolt, led by a group known as the Maccabees, and in 164 BCE they regain control of Jerusalem and purify the Temple. This event forms the basis of the celebration of Hannukah.
Immortality Taoism develops; Taiping Jing is compiled.
First Gospel published ( that was written by Mark)
Centre of Christianity moves to Antioch, Alexandria and Rome.
Widespread persecution of Christians under Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Book of Revelation and Gospel of Saint John written.
First mention of cult of Confucius. Han emperor sends representative to respect the Confucius' grave.
The founder of this religion was Jesus Christ and Christians believe that Jesus is the incarnation of God.
Emperor Han Wudi makes Confucian texts the basis of training for bureaucrats
Zhang Ling founds the sect of the Way of Five Bushels of Rice.
Zhang Lu organizes the Way of Five Bushels of Rice into religious communities, which become known as Taoism of Heavenly Masters.
Because of these tragedies, Jewish academics focus on compiling and codifying the teachings of the Rabbis. Around 200, the Mishna, or a collection of rabbinic teachings, sayings, and interpretations, is compiled. Soon after the Talmud, an expansion of the Mishna teachings, is compiled in Palestine and later updated in Babylon.
Wang Bi introduces Taoist concepts into Confucian learning.
Armenia becomes the world's first country to officially adopt Christianity as the state religion.
Edict of Milan issued by Constantine - Christianity becomes a religion within the Roman empire
Around 320 CE, Maharaja Sri Gupta founds the Gupta Empire. The Gupta Empire covered most of India. It ushers in an era of peace and prosperity that allows Hindu culture to stabilize and spread.
Ge Hong (283-363) writes The Master Who Has Embraced Simplicity.
Overrun by the invading Hun, the Gupta Empire got weaker and was destroyed around 500 CE.
The ruler of the Korean kingdom Baekje presents an image of the Buddha, as well as scripture-scrolls, to the Japanese Emperor Kimmei in 538, thus officially introducing Buddhism to Japan. After some dispute, the Japanese emperor accepts the religion, and it is declared the official religion 40 years later. Buddhism quickly becomes the center of Japanese culture.