Timeline of Science

Events

Agricultural Revolution

10000 BC

a period of technological improvement and increased crop productivity

Industrial Revolution

1760

a period of major industrialization

John Muir

1838

His activism has helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and many other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is a prominent American conservation organization.

Walden by Henry David Thoreau

1854

A book by Henry David Thoreau describing his two years of life alone at Walden Pond in Massachusetts.

Homestead Act

1862

A law passed in the 1860s that offered up to 160 acres of public land to any head of a family who paid a registration fee, lived on the land for five years, and cultivated it or built on it.

Yellowstone National Park

1872

a park in NW Wyoming and adjacent parts of Montana and Idaho: geysers, hot springs, falls, canyon.

General Revision Act

1891

The General Revision Act (sometimes Land Revision Act) of 1891 was a Federal legislation initiative signed in 1891 under the Presidential Administration of Benjamin Harrison.

Sierra Club

1892

The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28, 1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, who became its first president.

Lacey Act

1900

The Lacey Act is a 1900 United States law that bans trafficking in illegal wildlife. In 2008, the Act was amended to include plants and plant products such as timber and paper.

Golden Age of Conservation

1901

1901- 1909: Now called The Golden Age of Conservation, Theodore Roosevelt made it a personal goal of his to protect as much nature and wildlife as possible.

National Wildlife Refuge System

1903

National Wildlife Refuge System is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.

United States Forest Service

1905

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres (780,000 km2).

Aldo Leopold

1905

an American author, philosopher, scientist, ecologist, forester, conservationist, and environmentalist. He was a professor at the University of Wisconsin and is best known for his book A Sand County Almanac (1949), which has sold more than two million copies.

Gifford Pinchot

1905

an American forester and politician. Pinchot served as the first Chief of the United States Forest Service from 1905 until his firing in 1910, and was the 28th Governor of Pennsylvania, serving from 1923 to 1927, and again from 1931 to 1935.

Audubon Society Founded

1905

a non-profit environmental organization dedicated to conservation. Located in the United States and incorporated in 1905, Audubon is one of the oldest of such organizations in the world and uses science, education and grassroots advocacy to advance its conservation mission.

Antiquities Act

1906

the first United States law to provide general protection for any general kind of cultural or natural resource.

US National Park Service founded

1912

an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.

Dust Bowl

1930

an area of land where vegetation has been lost and soil reduced to dust and eroded, especially as a consequence of drought or unsuitable farming practice.

Civilian Conservation Corps

1933

a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal.

Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act

1934

as amended -- The "Duck Stamp Act," as this March 16, 1934, authority is commonly called, requires each waterfowl hunter 16 years of age or older to possess a valid Federal hunting stamp.

Taylor Grazing Act

1934

a United States federal law that provides for the regulation of grazing on the public lands (excluding Alaska) to improve rangeland conditions and regulate their use.

Soil Conservation

1940

the protection of soil from erosion and other types of deterioration, so as to maintain soil fertility and productivity.

Silent Spring

1962

Silent Spring is an environmental science book by Rachel Carson. The book was published on 27 September 1962 and it documented the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides.

Wilderness Act

1964

The Wilderness Act, signed into law in 1964, created the National Wilderness Preservation System and recognized wilderness as “an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.”

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act

1968

preserve certain rivers with outstanding natural, cultural, and recreational values in a free-flowing condition for the enjoyment of present and future generations.

Cuyahoga RIver in Cleveland, Ohio caught fire

1969

At the time of the first Earth Day in 1970, the Cuyahoga River had long been a pollution problem. ... But when the Cuyahoga River caught fire in Cleveland in 1969, many believe it became the symbol of out-of-control pollution that was needed to get the Clean Water Act passed. The word “cuyahoga” means crooked.

National Environmental Policy Act

1969

The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is a United States environmental law that promotes the enhancement of the environment and established the President's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ).

First Earth Day

1970

Earth Day is an annual event celebrated on April 22. Worldwide, various events are held to demonstrate support for environmental protection. First celebrated in 1970, Earth Day events in more than 193 countries are now coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network.

Clean Air Act

1970

The Clean Air Act is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level. ... As with many other major U.S. federal environmental statutes, it is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in coordination with state, local, and tribal governments.

Environmental Protection Agency

1970

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in December 1970 under United States President Richard Nixon. The EPA is an agency of the United States federal government whose mission is to protect human and environmental health.

Endangered Species Act

1973

The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 is a key legislation for both domestic and international conservation. The act aims to provide a framework to conserve and protect endangered and threatened species and their habitats.

American Family Association

1977

a non-profit organization based in the United States that promotes fundamentalist Christian values.