"The Dutch revolt against Phillip II was inextricably political and religious at the same time, and it became increasingly an economic struggle as the years went by. It began in 1566, when some 200 nobles of the various provinces founded a league to check the 'foreign' or Spanish influence in the Netherlands. The league to which both Catholic and Protestant nobles belonged, petitioned Phillip II not to employ the Spanish Inquisition in the Netherlands. They feared the trouble it would stir up; they feared it as a foreign court; they feared that in the enforcement of its rulings the liberties of their provinces would be crushed. Phillip's agents in the Netherlands refused the petition. A mass revolt now broke out. Within a week fanatical Calvanists pillaged 400 churches, pulling down images, breaking stained-glass windows, defacing paintings and tapestries, making off with gold chalices, destroying with a fierce contempt the symbols of 'popery' - and 'idolatry.' The rank and file for these anti-Catholic and anti-Spanish demonstrations consisted chiefly of journeymen wage earners, whose fury was driven by social and economic grievances as well as religious belief."