An American silversmith, engraver, early industrialist, and Patriot in the American Revolution. Was responsible for the famous print of the Boston Massacre.
Albany Plan of Union
Benjamin Franklin's plan of union, though rejected, that called for an inter-colonial union to manage defense and Indian affairs.
French and Indian War
1754 - 1763
War between French and England in North America (Seven Year's War) over land and control of trade, first time colonies united ever.
Treaty of Paris
February 10, 1763
Ended the French and Indian War, France gave up all claims in North America. Ended all hostilities Britain had with France and Spain, and made them a much more wealthy and powerful country.
Proclamation Line of 1763
October 7, 1763
Royal proclamation issued by king George III that forbade all settlement past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains, attempted to settle conflicts with the Native Americans. Angered colonists who thought they deserved the land.
Tax on molasses and sugar passed by the British Parliament meant to raise revenue in the colonies. Increased restrictions on colonial commerce.
The practice whereby elected representatives normally reside in their districts and are directly responsive to local interests.
The notion that parliamentary members represented the interests of the nation as a whole not those of the particular district that elected them. Was an unpopular opinion among the colonists, didn't agree.
March 22, 1765
Direct tax on the colonies that required a tax on all printed material such as newspapers, legal documents, and playing cards, meant to raise revenue in America.
March 24, 1765
Acts of Parliament requiring the colonies to provide supplies and quarters for British troops stationed in North America.
Sons of Liberty
Secret society in the colonies formed to oppose the Stamp Act.
Stamp Act Congress
October 7, 1765 - October 25, 1765
First congress of the American colonies, held in New York with representatives from some colonies. Drew up a "Deceleration of the Rights and Grievances if the Colonists" it was the first time for unity against the British after the French and Indian War.
Townshend Revenue Acts
A series of British acts, imposing duties on colonial tea, lead, paint, paper, and glass. Started paying colonial government salaries and increased custom officials at American ports.
Non Importation Acts (movement)
Prohibition against any trade with Britain in the colonies, put economic pressure on them.
March 5, 1770
Colonial men protesting British soldiers, soldiers shot and killed five colonists which were the first Americans killed in the War for Independence. Sam Adams started calling the incident the Boston Massacre, used it to get more people angry at the British.
June 9, 1772
In Providence, Rhode Island where a British customs ship that had been enforcing the Navigation Acts in and around Newport was blown up by colonists.
An Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, objective was to reduce the massive amount of tea held by the financially troubled British East India Company. It permitted the East India Company to sell through agents in America without paying the duty customarily collected in Britain, which reduced the retail price.
Committees of Correspondence
The purpose was to warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Britain and broaden the resistance movement. Very impactful in the Southern and Middle colonies because they weren't feeling the events first hand like the Boston colonists were.
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773
A political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts. They disguised themselves as Indians and destroyed a whole cargo of tea belonging to the British East India Company in order to prevent paying the duty on it.
Intolerable (Coercive) Acts
Harsh laws passed by the British Parliament that were meant to punish the American colonists for the Boston Tea Party and other protests. Included the Boston Port Act, the Massachusetts Government Act, the Administration of Justice Act, and the Quartering Act.
June 22, 1774
Meant to institute a permanent administration in Canada replacing the temporary government at the time of the Proclamation of 1763. It gave Canada an appointed government, enlarged the boundaries of Quebec, and confirmed the privileges of the Catholic Church.
Lexington and Concord
September 1, 1774
The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War, militia men defending their colony against British soldiers. "The shot heard around the world" the start of the Revolutionary War.
First Continental Congress
September 5, 1774 - October 26, 1774
A meeting of delegates from most of the thirteen colonies in response to the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts
Second Continental Congress
May 10, 1775
Managed the colonial war effort and moved towards independence, adopting the United States Deceleration of Independence on July 4, 1776
Repealed the Stamp Act, stated that Parliament had the authority to legislate for the colonies in "all cases whatsoever" the British Parliament's taxing authority was the same in America as Great Britain.
Thomas Paine "Common Sense"
January 10, 1776
Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine advocating independence from Great Britain and the creation of a democratic republic to people in the thirteen colonies.
Deceleration of Independence
July 4, 1776
The formal statement written by Thomas Jefferson declaring the freedom of the thirteen American colonies from Great Britain, adopted at the Second Continental Congress.