Children started going to "Grammar School" and were initially given a rigorous introduction to latin grammar.
Roger Ascham and Montaigne
They made specific proposals for curriculum reform and for changes in the way Latin was taught
He described how he was entrusted to a guardian who adressed him exclusively in Latin for the first year of his life, since Montaigne's father wanted his son to speak Latin well.
Modern Languages began to enter the curriculum of European schools, they were taught using the same basic procedures that were used for teaching latin.
"The Ciceronian or the Perussian Methos of Teaching the Elements of Latin Language
Grammar Translation was first known in the United States as the Prussian Method (a book by B. Sears, an American classics teacher).
Montaigne opened a language school in Boston in the late 1860's, and his method soon became referred to as the Natrual Method.
International Phonetic Association
The International Phonetic Association was founded in 1886, and its international Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) was designed to enable the sounds of any language to be accurately transcribed.
Textbooks consisted of statements of abstract grammar rules, lists of vocabulary and sentences for translation. A typical textbook in the mid-nineteenth century consisted of chapters or lessons organized around grammar points.
By the 1920's, use of the Direct Method in noncommercial schools in Europe had consequently declined.
A study begun in 1923 on the state of foreign language teaching concluded that no single method could guarantee succesful results. The goal of trying to teach conversation skills was considered impractical in view of the restricted time available for foreign language teaching in schools.
1950 - 1980
The most active period in the history of approaches and methods was from the 1950's to the 1980's. The 1950s and 1960 saw the emergence of the the Audiolingual Method and the Situational Method, which were both superseded by the Communicative Approach.
Individual vs mixed individual
Brodbeck, F.C., & Greitemeyer, T effects of individual versus mixed individual and group experience in rule induction on group member learninb and group performance.
Richards states that language competence is, its usage to the purposes and functions
Although great teaching comes first and foremost from a great teacher, technology is making a big difference in modern classrooms. A huge variety of tools and exercises are available to teachers.