Mr. Keller's Powerpoints
Notes from Class
The Kellogg Briand Pact of 1928 was between American and French diplomats Kellogg and Briand. The Pact tried to make war illegal as a tool of diplomacy. This was obviously a ridiculous idea, and failed miserably, as war broke out only 10 years later. The Pact was an example of an utter failure in the attempt to end war.
The Manchurian Crisis was created by Japan. Japan, as a country with not that many natural resources, needed much more and decided to invade Manchuria. This began their conquest of Southeast Asia. GB and France did nothing, as sending troops and resources across the entire world to support the Asian theatre would require an enormous amount of time and resources. Britain and France, trying to stay out of war when they had just finished one ten years earlier, did nothing.
This is a very important moment in all of history as Hitler causes many things to occur in Europe. Hitler took power thereby ending the Weimar Republic’s rule which the people of Germany despised due to its lack of success in rebuilding Germany after World War I. Hitler taking control of Germany is extremely important as life in Germany completely changes afterwards. After Hitler takes power, Jews are pinned as enemies to the state and sent to concentration camps. Another change that occurs is that Hitler takes away all the rights of the people saying that it was necessary to keep a communist revolution from occuring. Also, Hitler abolishes all political parties to prevent any from trying to rebel against him and remove him. He also helps Germany rise out of the ashes and rebuild it back into a European superpower. The most notable effect of Hitler’s rise to power is the fact that his actions to take over parts of Europe eventually lead to World War II which again causes a large amount of casualties. Hitler rising to power in Germany affects many countries' histories.
Italy was part of the Axis powers, and wanted to have conquest of their own. Hitler was power hungry, and he was taking over a lot of land in continental Europe. As a result, Mussolini wanted power and conquest of his own. So, he attacked Ethiopia, which was under the rule of Emperor Haile Selassie. The Italians took over Ethiopia, which was an achievement as Ethiopia had held out against the British and Italians when they had tried to take over the country during the Age of Imperialism
The Spanish Civil War was fought between the Nationalists, or the National Front, and the Republicans, or the Popular Front. The Nationalists were made up of Catholics, the Falange, or fascist, party, and Monarchists. The Republicans were made up of Basques, Catalans, Communists, Marxists, Republicans, and Socialists. Spain was primarily a peasant economy and was very religious. However, it had a problem of separatist groups, such as the Basques and Catalans. Three was a lot of political instability, and was ruled from 1923-30 by dictator Primo de Rivera and King Alfonso XIII. The country was hit hard by the Depression. In 1936, elections were won by the Popular Front, who were a coalition of all left wing parties, who wanted radical reforms. In July, a revolt of army officers led to the Spanish Civil War. The Nationalist side was led by General Francisco Franco, who had the support of the army. Britain’s policy towards the war was appeasement yet again, while the League of Nations adopted a non-intervention policy. All countries agreed but nobody followed well. Italy supported the Nationalists, France supported the Republcians, Russia supported the Republicans, Germany supported the Nationalists, and Britain stuck to non-intervention under PM Baldwin. Franco won the war, and there were many consequences. Democracy was discredited, Fascism triumphed, GB and France, through non-intervention, proved weak, and Germany and Italy were brought closer, eventually leading to the Rome-Berlin Axis. Spain, however, did not ally with Germany.
The Rhineland was a very important industrial area for Germany, but it was taken away with the Treaty of Versailles. Germany, incited by the Fuhrer, Hitler, invaded the Rhineland and began to militarize. This was one of the first acts of aggression by the Nazi Germany. When Great Britain and France learned of this, they maintained a policy of appeasement and did nothing.
Guernica was published in June of 1937, shortly after the bombing of Guernica, which was a small town in Spain, by German bombers during the Spanish Civil War. Guernica was painted by Pablo Picasso and is a perfect representation of cubism. It depicts the devastation and destruction caused by the German bomber techniques. Guernica is one of the most famous cubist paintings.
The Austrian Anschluss was the annexation of Austria into the territories of Nazi Germany in 1938. As with many other of Hitler's actions, GB and France did nothing. They believed that the Germans had the right to annex Austria, as they both spoke the same language and had a sense of unity. The Anschluss was one of the beginnings of the German conquest of Europe in the 1930s and 40s. The Anscluss was a major breach of the Treaty of Versailles, and they could have stopped Germany, but nobody did anything and Germany continued their conquest of Europe.
A major appeasement policy done by the British and French was the Munich Agreement. In this, GB and France agreed to let Hitler take over the Sudetenland as long as he took nothing else. However, when Hitler did take more, the Allied Powers still did nothing. The Munich Agreement destroyed the reputation of Nevilled Chamberlain, who was the Prime Minister at the time. He declared that there was "peace in our time" and that "Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with." However, Hitler was not a business man, and he did not follow the Munich agreement. Chamberlain therefore was deposed and Winston Churchill was appointed as the war Prime Minister of Great Britain.
THe Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was a pact of nonagression between the Soviet Union, led by Joseph Stalin, and Nazi Germany, led by Herr Hitler. The nonagression pact established the separate spheres of influence between the two countries and they promised not to attack each other. The Pact was broken by Hitler two years later in Operation Barbarossa, his biggest mistake, when he invaded Russia and tried to fight the war on two fronts, ultimately leading to his defeat. Under the pact, Russia probably would not have entered the war, but Operation Barbarossa incited them and led to Hitler's defeat.
Operation Barbarossa was the attempted takeover of Russia by the Nazi Germany. Germany, not wanting to get caught in the brutal Russian winter that had crushed Napoleon over a century ago, began to invade Russia in June of 1941. However, this was too late. In Russia, the winter starts early, and snow starts falling much earlier. So, the Russians waited the Germans out until the winter crushed them. Operation Barbarossa is sometimes called Hitler's biggest mistake. He now had to fight the war on two fronts, leading to his ultimate defeat.
Operation Overlord is the term for the invasion of Normandy, popularly known as D-Day. Overlord was a plan masterminded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, future president and leader of the Allied Forces. Overlord involved an amphibious attack, with troops coming across the channel and paratroopers dropping in over the enemy lines. The battle was basically the end for the Nazis. After D-Day, the Allies swept through Europe and pushed back Germany on both fronts, with Russia on the East and GB and US on the west. Hitler, when the Allies were close, killed himself.