The Ascension happened after Jesus rose from the dead. This is when Jesus ascends to Heaven. He does this in front of his apostles.
The resurrection happened after Jesus was placed in his tomb. Three days later he rose from the dead. This proved that he really was the Son of God.
Before Paul began following Jesus, he was known as Saul. He persecuted as many Christians as he could, until one day on the way to Damascus, he was blinded by a light. Jesus asked him, "Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me?" For three days he was blind and couldn't eat or drink. A disciple named Ananias came to Saul and healed and baptized him. Paul became one of the best missionaries of the Church.
At the Council of Jerusalem, there was a disagreement over whether or not the Gentiles had to first follow Mosaic Law before they could become Christians. Peter told them that God makes no distinction between Gentile and Jew. We believe that we are all saved in the same way, through the grace of Jesus Christ.
Paul went to Rome to continue his mission of spreading the good news. He had always wanted to go to Rome and hoped to continue on to Spain. He spent 2 years in Rome before he was beheaded.
At the time Peter was martyred, he was the Pope. He died on an upside down cross. He wanted to be crucified upside down because he didn't think he was worthy to be killed in the same way as Jesus. He died under the reign of emperor Nero.
The message of the Gospel of Mark is that Jesus calls all who believe in him to proclaim the gospel of God and to live the gospel in everything you do. He was writing to the Gentiles. The Gentiles were Christians, not Jews. Jesus was portrayed as a very busy person.
The message of the Gospel of Luke is that Jesus was the Messiah, he was the Son of God and he has control. He was writing to the Greek Gentiles. Jesus was portrayed as compassionate and forgiving.
The message of the Gospel of Matthew is that Jesus is the Messiah and the savior. He was writing to Jews converted to Christianity. Jesus was portrayed as a teacher.
The message of the Gospel of John is that our actions on earth, decide how we spend eternity. He was writing to everyone. Jesus was portrayed as noble, majestic and divine.
The 2nd through 5th Popes (dates of their papacy and death/retirement)
Pope St.Linus was the second pope, following Peter. Linus was friends with Paul. He's the patron saint of hat and veil makers. He was also a martyr.
Pope St.Anacletus was the third pope. He was a martyr too. Peter was the one who converted him to Christianity.
Pope St.Clement I, was the fourth pope. He is the patron saint of marble workers.
Pope St.Evaristus was the fifth pope. It's believed he was a martyr but it hasn't been proven.
Constantine met with the emperor of the eastern half of the empire in Milan, Italy. They made an agreement on religious toleration, so that the Christians wouldn't be persecuted. Constantine converted to christianity when before a battle he saw a vision of God telling him to paint a symbol on the all of the shields that would be used. He did this and he won the battle and he believed. Under Constantine's rule, Christianity became the favored religion. Christianity spread a lot during this time. (Ten Peak Moments of the Catholic Church PDF)
This schism was a permanent separation of the Roman Catholics, to the west and the Eastern Orthodox church, to the east. This was caused by the fact that there were multiple popes and they couldn't decide who was the supreme ruler. Also, the dominant language of the west was Latin and the dominant language of the east was Greek. (Theopedia/Great Schism)
This council confired that Catholics believe in the Trinity. It also confireds that God the Father and God the Son are the same, against Arius' teachings. Constantine considers the Arian bishops heresy and banishes them. From this council came the Nicene Creed. Also, Easter was decided to always be on a Sunday. (Catholic Bridge/Timeline)
This council proclaimed the divinity of the Holy Spirit and that it proceeded from the father and the Son, which was added to the Nicene Creed. Also, it divided the human and divine parts of Jesus, which was confusing people. (Catholic.org & Catholic-resources)
It got rid of Nestorianism, which is the belief that Christ is two people. This was false, but some people believed it, so this brought on the council. They also declared Mary as the Mother of God. This was the third official council of the Catholic Church. (Catholic.org)
This council defined that Jesus had two natures, divine and human. This was a problem for historians because people didn't understand if Jesus was divine or human. (Catholic.org)
This council was called to get rid of the teachings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, the false parts in the writings of Theodoret, and the letters of Ibas. It also reaffirmed the dogmas stated by last two councils. (Catholic.org)
This Council defined the two parts in Christ (Divine and human) as the true teaching against the Monothelite heresy which claimed Jesus only had one "part" and that was divine.
This council was called to resolve the Iconoclastic Controversy which was when people were worshiping icons. (Britannica.com)
She was born in Lima, Peru in 1586. Her real name was Isabel, but after a servant claimed he saw her face turn into a rose, she went by Rose. She is the patron of Peru and all of South America. (https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Rose-of-Lima)
As a young woman, her beauty began to attract suitors. She wanted her only husband to be Christ. To deter these men, St. Rose marred her face, rubbing it with pepper to make it blister and she cropped her hair short. She was fully committed to Jesus. (http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=446)
St. Rose died at the age of 31 in Peru. it is said that she prophesied the exact date of her death. (https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Rose-of-Lima)
St. Kateri was born in Auriesville, NY in 1656. Her father was the chief of the Turtle Clan of the Mohawk tribe and her mother was a Christian. Her parents both died of smallpox when she was 4 along with her little brother. She then lived with her aunt and uncle. (http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=154)
When she was 4 years old both of her parents died of smallpox. This gave her the patron of people who have lost their parents. (http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=154)
St.Rose was beatified by Pope Clement IX. (https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Rose-of-Lima)
St. Rose was canonized by Pope Clement X. She was the first Catholic in the Americas to be declared a saint. (https://www.britannica.com/biography/Saint-Rose-of-Lima)
St. Kateri died at 24 in Kanhawake, Canada. She died in the arms of her best friend from health issues, most likely of complications from smallpox she had as a child. (http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=154)
She was born into a very wealthy Episcopal family in New York City. Her mother died when she was 3. (https://setonshrine.org/elizabeth-ann-seton/)
Saint Joseph's Academy and Free School was the school that she founded. It was the first free Catholic school in the US. She is the patron saint of Catholic schools because of this. (http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=180)
She died at age 46.
Ann Seton was beatified by Pope John XXIII. (https://setonshrine.org/elizabeth-ann-seton/)
Pope Paul VI canonized her. (https://setonshrine.org/elizabeth-ann-seton/)
St. Kateri was beatified by Pope John Paul II. (http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=154)
In 2006, a 6 year old boy named Jake Finkbonner, from Washington state was playing a game of basketball, when he cut his lip with the ball. It had swelled overnight, so he went to the emergency room. The doctors told him that he had a flesh-eating disease. His mother immediately called their church and the priest let the parish members know to pray to St.Kateri for a miracle. (The family is of Native American decent) Jake underwent daily surgeries to try and stop spreading. Friends visited bringing relics and medals of St. Kateri before one last surgery to save his life. The doctors came out and said it had miraculously stopped. He and Kateri suffered illness as a child and left scars behind on their faces. This was the last miracle needed for her canonization.
(Cavins, Lily of the Mohawks Story of St. Kateri)
St. Kateri was canonized by Pope Benedict XVI.