During this time, there was an argument over whether or not Gentiles had to follow Mosaic practice before they could convert to Christianity. Peter told them that God doesn't see people as Gentile or Jew. Instead, everyone is saved the same way through the grace of the Lord.
It lasted two months and twelve days, and 318 total bishops attended. It was called due to the false teachings of Arius, a man who taught that Jesus wasn’t divine. Out of the Council came the Nicene Creed, the proper date for Easter to be celebrated, and fixing the heresy Arius spread about the divinity of Jesus, saying that he is, in fact, truly divine.
The council was called by Emperor Theodosius in May of the year 381. The issue as to why the council was called was due to the fact that the Macedonians were denying the divinity of the Holy Spirit, claiming he was a messenger, but not fully God. The result of the council was the edited Nicene Creed, which added additional parts about the Holy Spirit. The teachings of the Council of Nicea were also elaborated and added on to.
Over 200 bishops attended the Council of Ephesus. The issue was that people were calling Mary the “Mother of Christ”, but not the “Mother of God” because they thought it would downplay the emphasis on Jesus’ humanity. The results are that Mary’s title is the “Mother of God”, and the fact that Jesus is both divine and human, all put together in one form.
The Council of Chalcedon was attended by 150 bishops. The issue was that Jesus was called both human and divine, but it was said that he was only human in nature, not also divine in nature. The teachings to come out of the council were that Jesus was both divine and human in his nature, even here on Earth. His two natures are both totally present in one form.
Council of Constantinople 2: 680-681 A.D. - 165 bishops attended. The issue was that there were many errors with the writings of Origen, Theodoret, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and Ibas of Edessa. The result of the council was that the teachings of the first four councils are confirmed.
This council was attended by the patriarchs of both Constantinople and Antioch, the emperor, and 175 bishops. The reason the council was called was because it was said that Jesus had only one “will”, and that was that he was only divine. The results of the council was the teaching that Jesus is both divine and human, and he has two “wills” not only one.
The council was called due to a belief called Iconoclasm. The Iconoclasm said that to worship any images or pictures, even of God, was considered heresy, and therefore, all of them must be destroyed. The results of the council was that adoration of pictures and icons are allowed.
This is the day that Jesus rose from the dead three days after being crucified. It is God's greatest miracle. It proves all of Jesus' teachings to be true, and promises eternal life in Heaven with God.
Forty days after he is resurrected, Jesus is taken body and soul into Heaven. The Ascension completes Jesus' teachings. By doing so, Jesus gives people the power to have eternal life in Heaven with God.
Before his conversion, Paul was a persecutor of Christians. On his way to arrest Christians in Jerusalem, Paul had an apparition of Jesus and was blinded. The disciple Ananias was told by God to lay his hands on Paul, and immediately he could see and was baptized.
The Gospel of Mark was written specifically to the Gentiles, or Non-Jewish Catholics. The Gospel of Mark was written because many Christian leaders were being killed, so to keep the history of Jesus alive, it had to be written down. Mark portrayed Jesus as a human always on the move. The reason was to identify with readers. For example, in Mark 1:41, Jesus is moved with pity for a leper who had the courage to come near him. By showing Jesus' emotion, the reader can better identify with him.
Paul was arrested by the Romans after his third missionary, and because he was a Roman citizen, he was allowed to testify before the emperor. In Rome, Paul continued to preach about the Kingdom of God. After two years, Paul was found guilty and was beheaded. He is one of the Church's early martyrs.
Tradition says that Peter was hung on an upside down cross. He was killed this way because he felt he was unworthy of being crucified like Jesus was.
The Gospel of Luke was written for the Greek Gentiles because as the Greek Christian communities grew, they needed direction, and Luke provided this. Jesus is shown as a loving and forgiving person. An example of this is shown in Luke 10:30-37, the parable of the Good Samaritan. Luke is the only one who includes this story in the Gospels, showing Jesus focusing on love and forgiveness over anything else.
The Gospel of Matthew was written for Jewish Christians, and it was written because many were unsure if Jesus was really the Messiah. Matthew emphasizes Jesus' origins and connections to being the Messiah. He is portrayed as a reflective teacher, and someone easy to relate to. There were always crowds of people around Jesus. An example of this is shown in Matthew 1:32-33, when Jesus is being mobbed by a crowd of people with illness wanting to be cured.
The Gospel of John was written for everyone, and it was written because there was conflict between Christian communities, and John wanted to put an end to it. John focuses on Jesus' divinity, and he is shown as someone of great nobility who deals with people individually. An example of this is found in John 3:1-21, as he speaks with Nicodemus on an individual level.
Rome was persecuting those who were Christian, and they declared war on them. It wasn’t until the battle between Constantine and Maxentius that the war finally ended. Constantine had a seen a vision of Jesus, telling Constantine to fight for him, and Constantine later won the battle, becoming the emperor of the west. After the war, Constantine met with the emperor of Milan, and the two agreed on religious toleration, and Christianity became the preferred religion.
Source - Ten Peak Moments of the Catholic Church.pdf
It was the event that separated the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodoxes. Both the patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the pope each said they had power over the other. Conflicting practices and teachings are also reasons why the two groups split. Though the Schism officially divided the two faiths, they had many disagreements before, like the pope in the west disagreed with Arianism while the Orthodoxes in the east supported it.
Birth Date: July 7th 1207
Saint Elizabeth of Hungary was born to parents King Andrew and Queen Gertrude of Hungary. She was born Princess Elizabeth of Hungary.
Death Date: November 17th 1231.
Saint Elizabeth died at age 24 in Marburg, Hesse, four days after she was struck with a fever.
Symbols: One specific symbol to Saint Elizabeth of Hungary is a basket of bread. This is because Elizabeth would often give food to the poor and hungry.
Miracles: Saint Elizabeth has had many miracles in her lifetime, and after her death. One of her more well known miracles is the miracle of roses. (Laughlin). During one of her many visits to the poor, her husband, Louis, stopped her and asked her to reveal what she had hidden in her cloak so that suspicions that she was stealing from the castle. Elizabeth did as her husband told her and she revealed the contents of her cloak, and instead of bread in her cloak, there was a vision of white and red roses. This miracle is one of the first that associates Catholic saints with roses.
Patronages: Saint Elizabeth is the patroness of widows, as her own husband died in 1227, brides, as she married her husband, Louis, at age 14, hospitals, as she created a hospital in honor of St. Francis, and beggars, as she often fed them through the kindness of her heart, though many around her doubted her.
She was canonized by Pope Gregory IX on May, 27th 1235. There is no beatification date for her.
Elizabeth grew up in the upper class in New York. Though her status in society was high up, she led a quite and simple life.
Saint Elizabeth died at age 46 from tuberculosis, only 16 years after she became Catholic.
Some of her symbols include a book and a school, as she was the co-founder of the Catholic school system in the United States, and a bible, as she was known to read it often.
She is the patroness of widows, because of her husband's death, death of parents, as her own mother died when she was very young, and in-law problems, as her in-laws hated her after she became a Catholic in 1805.
One important story in Saint Elizabeth's life is the time that she became Catholic. This was a very difficult decision because her husband's family were against the idea that she wanted to become Catholic. After her husband's death, Saint Elizabeth became interested in the Catholic faith. She especially liked the fact that Mary was her mother, as she had lost hers at a very young age. She officially joined the Church in the year 1805, and she lived out the Catholic lifestyle until her death in 1821.
Saint Marianne Cope was born Maria Anna Barbra Koob in Germany on January 23 1838. A year later, her family immigrated to the United States where she worked in a factory until her father's death in 1862.
Saint Marianne spent many years working with lepers in Hawaii, though she never contracted the disease. This is considered to be one of many miracles in her name. Saint Marianne died in 1918, and her remains are now found in a shrine in Syracuse, New York.
St. Marianne is the patroness of lepers, because she served those with leprosy and those affected by it, outcasts, because the lepers she served were considered to be outcasts, and Hawaii, because this is where she did most of her work.
A symbol that would represent Saint Marianne is a hospital because she created the first two Catholic hospitals in central New York, as well as managing hospitals in Hawaii.
One miracle of St. Marianne, occurring in 1993, happened when a woman with multiple organ failures, was suddenly cured after she had prayed to Saint Marianne Cope. Her recovery was certified miraculous by the Church and she was beatified in 2005.
She was beatified by Pope John XXIII.
She was canonized by Pope Paul VI and is the first U.S. born citizen to be canonized
She was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI.
Saint Marianne was canonized by Pope Benedict XVI.