AFTER communism + containment slide
Despite setbacks and suffering, W Europe not to be written off, still had large population still with leading industry. They feared dependence on US.
US eco grew like crazy
Marshall plan worked really well. Europe eco almost back to normal now, extended to Soviets + E Europe too. US gave the money but they determined themselves what to do with it so they didn't feel too controlled by US. W Germany doing well to, by 1958 it was leading industrial nation in W Europe - help britain most - britain was helping them keep communism out of turkey and greece until eventually britain had to leave there because they didn't have the resources to stay there.
Eco got help from involved gov+ eco planning
-Lend lease ended after WWII
deficit spending to prime the pump
sustained eco growth --> labor shortages, immigrant flow to germany for jobs - immigration = social friction
--------------------------------------***Basically, when US and Western powers like Britain and France weren't involved and let the rest of the struggling world on its own and decline, you get chaos like hitler, so they want to be more involved to prevent facism and communism and stuff like that. The Marshall plan restored the world market.
Many european powers had eco boom. Huge eco boom 1940s-1960. The 50s and 60s were thought of as pretty good eco times. Except for England who only lost like it lost it colonies in India. Britain lost overseas markets and now its technology that WAS new, is no longer as new and efficient as the new stuff everyone else is getting. Western Europe prosperous in MOSTLY private, free market, capitalist eco but it was accompanying by eco planning and systematic government intervention
-Was this just them trying to be in the middle?
--more welfare - insurance, redistricution of wealth - tried to make it universal
----Gov intervention to prevent another great depression, Keynes' theory of priming the pump
Many sections of eco also nationalised tho to create more of a mixed eco w both private and nationalized
Eco growht --> labor shortage --> immigration iisues. Workers go west.
Postwar baby boom but by 1960s birth rate levels off and europe shows sign of pop decrease
MORE ECO: - Need to shape post world war eco
unstable politics but stabilizing prosperous eco
attempts to restore free flow of trade + stable currency --> discussed at Bretton Woods conference
effort for a world trade organization, made GATT (framework for negotiation and rules for solving problems within international trading --> WTO (World trade organization) it mediated agreements, this was also to try to keep strong against communism. Many involved but def not soviets
Currency stability - as sought in bretton woods cnoference to go back to gold standard. Gold standard briefly until 1971 but later floating currencies. International monetary fund created to give loans to governments. Also world bank created and made long term loans to poor govs.
Eco became more integrated, trying to get less dependent of US, need for global eco and flowing/togetherness of ecos, it would help unity and stability. Council of Europe but it was only about humanitarian/social issues. --> 1958 European court of Human rights to protect rights of individuals from gov, no death penalty or punishment in schools.
-Small customs Union called Benelux w Belgium Netherlands, etc. Later 6 western countries, Fra, Germ, Ita, etc made a coal and steel industries connected between countries, it was out of the hand of the individual countries - Created by france's Monnet: European Coal and Steel Community which eliminated import taxes + placed production under common authority. -> This spread more and with Treaty of ROme it created a large free trade area and created the common market, it thrived. This also helped to revive and reabsorb W germany into western Europe. The nations involved eliminated tariff barriers and developed a common tarrif with the outside world and free movement of capital and labor. Under a separate treaty they also agreed to coordinate nonmilitary atomic research and technology. In this common market, W Europe captured the new configuration of global affairs. Essentially, the smaller places influenced the bigger places to do this. 1967 European community made, their assemblies are the European parliament I guess for political stability also. Eco stability --> political stability
Britain stayed out at first and its eco continued to lag to other W european economies.
1958-1968 great gains in eco integration/unity but political unity was harder. European Union, De gaulle said, shouldn't be total authority over all nations bc nations need to keep sov. This is why de gaulle supported decoupling and having france be on its own.
-----------------EUROPEAN COMMUNITY created strong sense of common destiny, a shared faith in democracy, market economies and concern for human rights and social needs.
Eventually Treaty of Maastriant created European Union in 1992
Western Europe doing SUPER well, it even began to surpass the US like with steel production.
End of gold standard in 1971 - trade imbalances and issues were created- world eco not greaty affected so its still ok.
POLITICAL RECONSTRUCTION TOO:: renewing of parliamentary democracies. - only spain + portugal still dictatorships
Spirit of reform and call for union for peace
Christian democrats play large role in reshaping gov in Italy, Germany, France. \
EUROPE HAS FINALLY CHOSEN A PATH, ITS ALL ABOUT BEING IN THE MIDDLE NOW
Economically exhausted - losing its empire/colonies
had parliamentary elections after a little while of none
from conservative churchhill during war to Attlee after who was more about socialism and welfare -
in the middle because more regulation than if it was private capitalism but still pretty advanced with capitalist components, stuff was nationalized like Bank of England, coal mines, electricity, iron, etc. -
Mixed eco - some for welfare some for capitalist profit
half nationalized some still private tho
1951 - 1964 shifting back and forth between labor party and conservatives, they didn't undo the other sides stuff maybe just a bit mostly added their own new stuff - averages in the middle -the constant switching diminished their global status
Reconstruction == now even prosperity yet still strikes higher wages wanted - inflation - also face struggles in North Ireland.
doing better eco but still kinda hard - colonial wars with indochina + algeria
president is de Gaulle who wants to restore france to its greatness - new rep gov created (4th), purging collaborators. Coalition gov with communists socialists and mrp. Christian democrats form provisional gov
instability w still chaos 25 cabinets over a relatively small period of time (yet still significant legislation)
mixed eco developed - nationization of key industries, modernized eco, flexible eco planning (once again in the middle)
low birth rate for alittle while now
industrial expansion + welfare
Issues w 4th republic - it was trying to maintain colonial empire, the colonial wars left France really damaged, Indochina + algeria want independence, which De Gaulle + france recognize, independence to other french colonies. . --> After algeria crisis and de gaulle getting more power, 5th republic emerged, it was going pretty good at first too.
France got nuclear weapons too like only Britain, US, Soviets. De Gaulle later set himself up like a uncrowned republican monarch --> strikes which paralyze eco and threaten gov and stability
-----------------------------------------elimination of trade barriers, currency reform like in Germany then Gold Standard so everyone had the same
1940s -1960s: HUGE ECO BOOM
gov w many dem aspects but later de Gaulle built a government which kept civil liberties but got rid of democracy as a whole.He was uncrowned republican monarch - in middle average - no one liked this
France became worlds 5 industrial power 1960
EVERYONE IS IN THE MIDDLE BC THEY ARE IN BETWEEN PROGRESS AND TRADITION
Nuremberg trials, punishment for war criminals. Denazification. Germany showed the divisions, E germany became German Democratic Republic while west parliamentary gov germany became Federal republic of Germany. Mixed eco under a social market economy with private capitalist stuff as well as planning and welfare. They made the basic law which was similar to a constituion but not exactly, it was in the middle social market eco in middle. Mixed gov, coalition gov. Christian democratic Union with leader Konrad Adenauer was one of the parties. He became leader and strenghthened W germany and got good relations w France. It is still divided and under military occupation. Brandt's grand coalition of political parties and also supported Ostpolitik that encouraged building a bond and maintaining relations with USSR and Eastern Europe so that if they ever did unite, it would be good.
Reform - integration of labor/management with coalition gov w social dems and christian dems
After mousollini fell and they were trying to push germany out, they were ready for reform and supported the new gov. Voted to abolish savoy monarchy, a new republic without it. new constitution
Eurocommunism - still communism but more aware of not being as crazy I guess, each place would have to find its own way to societey thorugh parliamentary democracy. Christian democrats as dominant party. Communism weakening here tho overall but still some commie rat bastard leaders.
Purges in Russia - xenophobia, getting rid of people they don't like