Unit 1 Timeline/ Chapters 12,13,19,20,21,22,25

Overarching Periods - Super Important Events

Middle Ages

476 - Approx. 1400

The Middles Ages was a time in which the government of feudalism and the church would sometimes work together, but would sometimes clash. Lots of fragmentation everywhere.
An age of faith, spiritualism, and religion mainly yet it sets the stage for the Renaissance. Omnipresent reality of church shows the blend of monarchy and religion

Hierarchies

700 - 1300

Hierarchies of Feudalism and the Church - both are to keep order
Rome - universal hierarchy

Creation of Holy Roman Empire

963

Created under common religion??

Modern Nations begin to take shape

Approx. 1000

William I establishes England

Decline of Feudalism - End of Middle Ages

Approx. 1300 - Approx. 1380

Rise in population and agricultural technology --> more efficient with making goods --> more goods --> more need to sell outside the self sufficient manor --> trading centers --> towns (Political and Eco Independence from Manor)

FRAGMENTATION - politically (Feudalism vs Church), socially, locally, with lay investiture
Feudalism and the Church were supposed to maintain Medieval civilization but they undermined it.

Black Death - Plague

1348 - 1400

Causes 1/3 of European Population to die - leads to questioning of the church in that people wonder why God would do this if they are doing everything right.

Renaissance

1350

A time of "Rebirth", new invigorating attitude. Origins still from Middle Ages though. Rediscovery of Human values. The focus is on man, his place in the world, and what he does. SECULAR CONCEPTION OF LIFE
Evidence that this was the right time for it all - it spread everywhere

-Some said the Renaissance was totally new, others said its roots came earlier, still others said that it a mix (and that the Artisans of the Middle Ages were turned into something new - Artists, which is more of a Renaissance word)

Idea of Individualism - focusing on yourself and doing what is best for yourself.
-Getting glory/achievement for yourself instead of all glory only to God
-virtu - power a man

-Emphasis on schooling and manners
-Emphasis on enjoying your wealth instead of there being respectability in being poor/needing salvation.

Italian Renaissance

1350 - 1527

People current in the Renaissance believed their achievements wasn't inspired and didn't take contribution from the Middle Ages. It was more based on old Roman and Greek ways (REVIVAL OF GREEK WAYS - becoming familiar w/ writing by Plato).

Renaissance first took place in the Italian CITY STATES
-They were at the center of Europe's eco, pol, cultural life through 14th/15th centuries.
-New (wealthy) Merchant class developed looking to buy, sell, and enjoy $ --> conflicted w/ old nobility whose wealth was based on land ownership. 12th/13th centuries
-The city states are politically independent
-Centers for trade and commerce
-City states dominated by powerful families like the Medici Family in Florence
-There were many but after competition/warfare, only a few dominant ones remained like Florence, Milan, Venice, and the Papal states in central Italy.

**Reasons Renaissance was in Italy:
-Mediterranean for trade
-Southern Italy home to many Greek colonies, became center of HRE
-mountains as a barrier to "keep the ideas" in Italy,
-northern Italy loosely controlled by Holy Roman Empire
-City State's internal + external issues --> creative energy
- Economic reality that the city-states were better off economically than rest of Europe, w/ so many merchants and bankers.

Humanization of the divine and relating holy figures to humans - Renaissance even in religion.

Humanism

Approx. 1400 - Approx. 1648

Literary Humanism (Italian Renaissance):
-Viewpoint including rhetoric and literature
-Followed Petrarch's example of looking at old writing by studying classical Greek.
-Describe ideal man - Castiglione's book
-Use of textual evidence and sources
Written in the VERNACULAR - most common language in that area so more people can read it, not only in Latin anymore

Christian Humanism (Northern Renaissance):
-Humanism is about humans and what they due, and praying/religion is something humans do, so its all connected.
-Studied bibles a lot to better understand christianity

Women affected by humanist teachings in that more women were learning to read and write. A humanist scholar even created an educational program for women. Women feel more independent and want SOME equality but that's way in the future.

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1648

------This was like in England - Queen Elizabeth in power and James I
Until 1450, the Italian Renaissance had little effect on Northern Europe. However, ideas began to spread, leading to a Renaissance period in northern Europe and ending after the Thirty Years' War.

Renaissance able to spread here with the help of the Printing press invention around 1450 by Gutenberg in Germany. Need for this bc of new interest in writing and sharing the writings. This played a crucial role in the REFORMATION - informing people the nature of the religious debate.

Religion was still quite important here. It was less secular than in Italy.
*Erasmus - greatest northern humanist - he wanted to reform the church (unlike Luther who wanted to abandon it)
*
Thomas More

Own unique style of art here like by Durer or Boccaccio (humanist who agreed with Petrarch)

Mysticism - belief that a soul could communicate directly with god in perfect solitude

Italy becomes vulnerable

1494

Italy becomes more vulnerable possibly because it isn't put much emphasis on gov or church. Italy is kind of divided, but its culture still spread throughout Europe.
The Italian Peninsula was divided.

Pope is pretty much still the most powerful

1500

Renaissance Art

1500 - 1580

(Late Renaissance - after 1520) MANNERISM - Art style associated with the Renaissance about showing man in a realistic manner. Distorted figures + confusing themes to reflect sense of crisis in Italy due to political/religious issues

Characteristics of Renaissance Art:
More realistic
Individualistic - important individuals painted/made sculptures of
Oil paintings
3D
Classical (greek) influence on architecture

Artists:
Michelangelo
Raphael
Leonardo da Vinci

Artists sought prestige and money and support from secular individuals.

Art as it pertains to different people - art of $ for Medici Family, art of politics for Machiavelli, art of science for Copernicus

New Monarchies

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1600

People in different city states trying to consolidate to create their own nation states. Though it would seem like a powerful ruler would be bad for the freedom of the people, a strong leader would provide stability thus helping businesses.
Each separate nation-state is making its own identity separate from everyone else.

What rulers did to consolidate in their area:
-Henry VIII in England didn't allow lords to have private armies (livery and maintenance), started a royal council to operate without a jury to make it easier for him to rule and have more power I guess (Star Chamber)
-Louis XI in France attacked nobles, built a royal army, Concordat of Bologna and Pragmatic Sanction both worked to diminish the power of the pope.
-Hapsburgs in HRE used marriage in order to consolidate power within that family and the country
- Ferdinand and Isabella in Spain get married to combine the two 'sections' of Spain to become more united. They also used the catholic church, the fact that they were all the same religion, and the inquisition to create unity and consolidate. They demand religious conformity expelling the Jewish population.

This wouldn't have been done without the ideas from the Renaissance.
RELIGION IS NOW USED AS A MEANS OF POLITICAL CONSOLIDATION WHILE BEFORE POLITICS WERE USED FOR RELIGIOUS BENEFIT.

**New monarchies used religion to consolidate in that they made their own churches. Church of England or Church of France to kind of create nationalism that we are our own area with our own church. They questioned why they needed the far off authority in Rome or Vienna to help with religion.

Pope is not single religious authority

Approx. 1517

Around 1517
The break in religious unity made religion a less powerful force and politics kind of slipped in so political leaders are coming to be more powerful

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

It was a reflection of the way Europe was changing
Reasons:
-Distrust in the church as modern science and techniques had proved the church wrong in many different situations.
-Common people mad that the church is so wealthy
-Middle class want to keep all of their money instead of giving some of it to the church
-Kings vs church over historical secular issues over power
-General corruption in the church like Tetzel selling of indulgences so you wouldn't go to purgatory
-Humanism of the Renaissance led people to question practices of the church like the effectiveness of religious relics and the value of living as a monk.
-Printing press could print lots of bibles so it seemed necessary to need the church to read/interpret it to or for you.
-People had been question church like from Great Schism and Black Death --> people start to disrespect the clergy more (anticlericalism)
-Poorly educated lower clergy
-Simony, the selling of church offices

The common people and the princes support Luther and the Reformation. Lots of support right away.
Support of princes because they are thinking of the money that could be made through trade networks not bothered by religious rules.

Reformation in HRE

Approx. 1530 - Approx. 1580

Political Issues - Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, has struggles with French King Francis I over who would sit on the "imperial throne".
Charles V cannot effectively rule because of how big the empire was. German revolts couldn't be controlled, wars with France and Ottoman empire.

SEE: Peace of Augsburg slide

Radical Reformation

Approx. 1530 - Approx. 1570

Some felt Luther didn't go far enough.
Anabaptists, think baptism should be only for conscious adults. Re baptism for adults was hated by Luther and Pope --> attacks on Anabaptists like in Munster.
Antitrinitarians, deny validity of the Trinity

Reformation in France

1530 - 1570

France remained predominantly Catholic yet since it was in the Center of the predominantly Catholic HRE (between Charles V controlled Spain and HRE) France helped the Protestants out showing that political status was more important than the awfulness of a catholic nation supporting protestants. (Secularization)

Reformation in England

Approx. 1530 - Approx. 1588

-King is Henry VIII, he is the one who made the Church of England which was Catholic.
-He attempted to end his marriage with Catherine of Aragon because he needed a wife who would birth him a son. She was related to Charles V who wanted this marriage connection to continue. So threatens Pope telling him not to let Henry get the annulment. Pope refuses annulment --> Henry VIII is super mad to he created Reformation Parliament (to give him all control over religious matters) and Act in Restraint of Appeals (all spiritual cases under King's not Pope's authority). Eventually the Act of Supremacy (see other slide).
-Henry helped to close monasteries in the land
Edward (son) died so Mary became Queen. The Tudors passed Six Articles reaffirming Catholic faith. They killed Protestants (Bloody Mary)
-->Elizabeth becomes Queen and makes 39 Articles in which ENGLAND OFFICIALLY SWITCHED TO PROTESTANTISM in a new Church of England.
This was kind of used to consolidate and make England different and its own place, it even printed the bible in English now.

SENSE OF SOVEREIGNTY HERE:
It is decided that is is legit that the 1st born is the heir --> hereditary dynasties are what the people decided for themselves is legit. (This is also slightly Machiavellian because its all about keeping power within the family.)

After Elizabeth died, Stuart dynasty started. They were from Scotland so they were always kind of preoccupied with issues over in Scotland trying to help.

Act of Supremacy

1534

It acknowledged the King of England as the Supreme head of what became known as the Church of England.
Religion of the ruler is the religion of the nation

Steps towards secularization!!

Calvinism

Approx. 1540 - Approx. 1550

John Calvin's Calvinism is similar to Luther's Lutheranism (Protestantism) in that they both believe all you need is faith and faith is the key.
------Based on his book "Institutes of the Christian Religion"

Identifying factors of calvinism:
-Predestination - the "elect" go to heaven, it is all predetermined, no way to change it
-A strong feeling of purpose/mission - vocation
-Church not below civic government - Theocracy in Geneva
-Mainly/mostly in Geneva
-Superserious here, no enjoyment, because everyone is trying to act "elect"

French Calvinists called Huguenots. It was established in Scotland too.

Spread quickly during this time period

It can be said that Calvinism saved the Reformation because in Mid-16th century it was the Calvinists that stood in opposition to the newly aggressive Catholic church in the counter-reformation.

Counter Reformation - Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Catholics won't go down without a fight.
It worked best in Poland

Two sides of it:
1)Side of trying to push back Protestant side and saying Catholicism is better:
-Index of Prohibited books - censorship of Protestant Ideas
-Many inquisitions in which a state put heretics to death (Roman Inquisition)
-Catholic ideas reaffirmed, in Council of Trent, like going to heaven depending on good deeds, the importance of priests, the sacredness of saints, Latin as the main language, importance of all of the sacraments, and overall traditions of the church. Meaning OVERALL, LITTLE INTERNAL CHANGES
-Urged more art about religion --> helping to develop baroque style
-Ignatius Loyal's Jesuits were the greatest success - they went around educating people about Catholicism thinking if people knew more, they would support it more. He believed in the Bible but thought there was still faith without it. He had some ideas similar to mysticism.

Baroque artwork, over the top and inviting to inspire and awe people to come back to Catholicism.

2) Trying to make some change within the Church:
-Council of Trent (dominated by the papacy and even enhanced its power)
-Attempts to decrease simony, selling of indulgences, more education for church officials (clergy)
-Some like Pope Paul tries to help with limiting simony

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Following the Schmalkaldic War between Charles V and some Protestant Princes (and the general tensions with Protestant Groups like the Schmalkaldic League), Charles V lost and had to sign the Peace of Augsburg.-----Win for the Protestants

It said: A territory could decide its religion and how it would be practiced.

---Granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in those territories ruled by a Lutheran ruler while a Catholic ruler's territory was ensured to remain Catholic.

Overall secularization

Approx. 1590 - Approx. 1690
  1. Peace of Augsburg
  2. Act of Supremacy
  3. Catholic France supporting protestants just to hurt the also Catholic HRE whom they were in between so there was less of a chance HRE would try to "take over France" -Political Agenda > Religious agenda

The New Religion

1649

Decide to create new religion based on ideas free from papal control.
-Fewer sacraments - only two now
-Rejected transubstantiation (Eucharist turning into body of Christ by the Priest) Luther says Christ is already present in the sacrament.
-Justification by faith doctrine
-Be your own priest
-Priest can marry and have children

Within 30 years, Protestantism had spread to many of the states/areas more in NORTHERN Europe like northern Germkany, Scandinavia, England, Scotland, Switzerland (most important protestant state at first), France, Switzerland.
SOUTHERN Europe - Still Catholic

Reasons for success
-The religion was socially conservative so it wasn't a great threat to the existing social order.
-Luther put his church below the authority of the German princes - he thought politics weren't important since Earth was just a stepping stone to heaven anyway
-German princes got stuff out of it too, they, with approval of Luther, took Catholic lands. They were all controlled by HRE so more power for princes now.

German Peasant Revolt

1649

Peasants revolt over worsening eco conditions. The common people supported Luther and the Reformation. They though his ideas of "priesthood for all believers" was a message that all people were equal and deserved equal opportunities, but this is NOT what he meant.
He was actually disgusted by the revolt, he thought Protestantism was supposed to be more of an individual thing, not something that people come together to revolt for.

He thought politics weren't important since Earth was just a stepping stone to heaven anyway so he was mad the peasants were revolting over this.

Luther didn't want this social and religious revolution that was occurring. He wanted an individual revolution where gov was still the head

Important People

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

Father of Literary Humanism - Displayed Renaissance ideas before the Renaissance in his papers and essays.

John Wycliffe

1329 - 1384

He (a peasant?) questioned the immense wealth of the church, selling of indulgences, and transubstantiation (the Eucharist becoming the body of Christ).
He encouraged people to reach/teach the bibles themselves

John Hus lead a religious revolt!

Medici Family

1434 - 1737

Family in power this period of time.
Got their fortune from banking, Used $ to support and buy Renaissance art, helping it to develop.

Lorenzo Valla's Critical textual analysis

1440

He looked for sources and evidence of works and documents. He proved the Donation of Constantine was forged ---> LOTS of doubt in the church created (helped w/ Protestant Reformation)

Erasmus

1469 - 1536

Wants people to read New Testament to understand Christianity better.
Strong/Important Northern humanist. Thought critical thinking + evidence > superstition and dogma.
Supported Religious toleration.
"Praise of Folly" book making fun of the church and pointing out its corruptions

Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

A Renaissance Man - Wrote "The Prince" explaining what a good ruler should be.
Observed how rulers rule and what rulers do to stay in power - anything they have to.
Says its more about secular power than religious power.
Helped create modern literature by using empirical observations unlike most things of the time.

Book based on collapse of Italian independence.

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

He discovered that the Earth was not in the center of the Universe unlike the church had said --> doubt in church (helping w/ Protestant Reformation)

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

Important artist showing Renaissance ideas - studied human anatomy to better paint it. Used new methods of art. Concept of Realism.
His famous work in Sistine Chapel.

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Renaissance Man - Wrote "Utopia" book saying people can be happy on Earth not just waiting to be happy in heaven. Enjoy life here - more secular thinking

Refused to take Act of Supremacy recognizing Henry VIII as head of the Church of England, he refused and was executed.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

He doesn't want to fix the system, he wants to change it, break away from it.
He was most disturbed by sale of indulgences (used to convince knights to fight in crusades)

He wrote his 95 Theses in the vernacular so everyone could read it. They were spread all over Germany thanks to the Printing Press. Pope Leo X ignored them
-He complained about Germany money going to Rome
-He was mad they tried to control purgatory

Pope Leo X tells Luther to renounce his theses or be executed as a heretic.He refused so he was excommunicated but luckily he important supporters. Some German princes like Frederick of Saxony.
-----> So Luther appeared before Diet of Worms, a meeting of Germany nobility, He was banished from empire by HRE Charles V but he was hidden by Elector of Saxony.

Zwingli taught similar ideas in Swiss cities.

Charles V/Hapsburgs

1526

Europe is mostly ruled by Hapsburgs, specifically Charles V right now

Castiglione's Book of the Courtier

1528

All about manners and good birth. Man should know several languages, skilled in arts, and familiar with classical literature.

Middle Ages (Not on AP Exam)

Sets the stage for the Renaissance

Fall of Roman Empire

476

Too big to consolidate,
<img src="![](http://explorethemed.com/Images/Maps/RomeDivided936.jpg") alt="Image result for roman empire 400"/>
Split - 2 capitals

Charlemagne Empire

768 - 814

Consolidates power - order

Death of Charlemagne

0815

Turmoil! Break of social and political control

Feudalism + Catholic Church

0815

The main hierarchies to maintain order and control. Rise of feudalism was a response to the turmoil of death of Charlemagne.
Tension between which as ultimate power..

Dilemma for the church, it needs to move on and keep up with the times so it doesn't get left behind, but it needs to be careful not to lose its identifying characteristics.

Lay Investiture Controversy

1073 - 1122

Lord says if there is a church in my manor I should be able to appoint bishops and basically be the main one in power.
Pope still had the most power at this time so he said no, I decide.
*Tensions between Nobles and Pope

Pope Gregory VII v Henry VI 1703 controversy because King Henry wanted religious officials to be appointed by secular people. Pope won because Pope still more important at this time.

Crusades

1095 - 1291

Holy War - "ordered" by God to fight and kill others?
Europe wide common purpose though
Opened up the Mediterranean

Nobles try to send off men and their children so when they die they can get their land.

Scholasticism

1100

Thomas Aquinas tries to combine faith and logic to make Christianity more relevant
Greek and Arab intellectualism combined with Christian Doctrine.

Magna Carta

1215

King John wants to consolidate as a nation, though this is a pretty modern concept, he most likely only wants to do it to benefit himself..
The Feudal lords didn't want their power to be taken away so they forced the King to sign this.

Invasions

Approx. 1240 - Approx. 1453

Various invasions by Mongols and Turks who were eventually assimilated. Overtime though, Europe became able to hold its own against the invasions and this is what truly allowed it to Prosper. --> Leads to questioning of the church

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

War between England and France over feudal disputes

Catholic Church Issues

1378 - 1417

Catholic Church was divided, competing popes in Great Schism (multiple popes at once which leads to confusion for the Catholic people).
Issues lead to Conciliar Movement in which council of bishops try to keep the power of the Pope in check.

Questioning of Religion - People are doing everything right yet so many killed by things like Black Death.

Many wanted reform of Catholic Church. Yet it was the height of Medieval Papacy with Innocent III who was super powerful and successful.

Specific Events/Documents/Occurings

Chapters 12 + 13

Intro to Chapters 12 + 13

1847

(Unit 7) - After the French Revolution ended, Europe was lost and had to decide which of the 4 pathways to take. At first, because of the chaos, conservatism seemed to be winning w its control, but by the 1830s, liberalism seemed to push through more and more reform was taking place.

Now Chapters 12 + 13
By 1848, it all comes crashing down, govs collapsing all over Europe, and chaos breaks out with all of the revolutions in 1848. But all this wasn't mainly from sheer power of revolutionaries. People get super scared because its the same sentiment as when French rev started. King flee, streets filled with revolutionaries, etc. These were the craziest times yet.

Look at liberalism Slide

**Only Britain and Russia didn't have revolutions in 1848.
Reasons:
-pressure from both extremes of conservatives and radicals.
-nature of liberalism - even the liberals fight among themselves - they try to accomplish too much
-the new concept of nationalism that everyone is all about unity doesn't fit with liberalism, liberalism is about change and reform while nationalism is about being the same and all on the same page + consolidated
-1848 MARKED THE CHANGE OF LIBERALISM AND NATIONALISM BEING THE SAME THING TO BEING CONTRADICTING - CHANGE FROM ROMANTIC TO REALISTIC

People are also mad about the geographic realities, after Napoleon when the lines, were redrawn, no everyone liked where they were redrawn. They were generally looking for more constitutional gov, independence, less serfdom.

**These revolutions lost fervor and strength quickly, they were crushed. If anything, the revolutions only empowered the conservatives more.--> left a legacy of class fear + conflict. Marxism seems appealing. Governments take control
--While the conservatives pulled ahead, they gave in a little to the revolutionaries and did some liberal stuff so that the revolutionaries would be pleased and not angry.
The 3 main empires are Austria, Russia, and Prussia
OVERALL - 1848 is all over the place with Radical Karl Marx's communist manifesto, conservative reassertion, and both pressuring the middle liberal revolution.

Mazzini vs Metternich

Approx. 1848 - Approx. 1850

Metternich (Austria) Mazzini (Italy)
-Focuses on systemic/diplomatic (BOP) realities -Focuses on the emotional reality
-Wants to expand empire -Focus on the homeland
-Doesn't want united Italy, it messes up BOP -Wants united Italy
-Sees nationalism as top down that you need a strong -Sees nationalism as bottom up, it
leader who will control everything and keep a strong comes from the people themselves
nation
-Says gov needs no relationship w people, people
don't like this about him

Marxism

1848 - 1900

Marxism is based on eco realities. emphasized materials, he wants classless society, social wars between classes made this seem appealing
Marx's communist manifesto written in 1848
-Says capitalism will collapse on its own
appealed because it was scientific and calculated and was based on some facts
also not spreading cause lower classes are not in the mood to fight

Communist league + helegans
religion seen as a way to keep lower classes in order, Engels in Britain exposed bad working conditions 1840s

class conflicts, building of middle class also meant perpetuating the bad state of proletarian

1850s general rise in wages + labor unions

FRANCE: Revolutions in 1848/Liberalism

1848

Liberalism is trying to push through but it has a lot of enemies since its in the middle. Conservatives (monarchs) radicals (marxists) and liberals themselves

Issues
-Too many goals - people fight.divided over what to do
-often the liberals start something like wanting reform and the radicals take it to far like with the February revolutions.
-Contradict themselves, they want more opportunities yet only for while males
-After all the craziness, Louis Philipe and Guizot go back to conservative
-******Middle class and working class who are supposedly on the same team are working against each other - class war in June days
-in fact, the middle class unlike the working class actually supported Napoleon III because they wanted stability and conservativsm instead of liberalism so there was more stability for business

REVOLUTIONS:

FRANCE:
Conservative July Monarchy made before 1848. It's like a band aid over a broken bone, people still mad from republican revolution in 1830 . Chamber of Deputies and french gov is not getting much outside input, it represents few. Lots of crime/corruption.
---------Movement for voting rights - radicals want universal male suffrage + republic while liberals want broaded vote + keep constitutional monarchy
Ruler Louis Philippe and prime minister Guizot used to be more liberal but now with all the craziness they oppose all change and are more conservative

February Revolutions 1830: Chaos in the streets --> king gives in to electoral reform, but revs want more --> killing on both sides --> thus Louis Philippe abdicated (like Charles X) --> revolutionaries force set up Second French Republic
-----Louis Blanc, a social rep/minority in provisional gov. He wanted social workshops, but gov only made National Workshops to help with unemployment instead to please social reps. They were super popular. It included both skilled and unskilled. Women not included and 10 hour work day rejected, they didn't get everything they wanted. BUT final abolition of slavery!! Basically this just shows breakthrough of liberalism.
But most of france was not socialist. Paris was center of rev action that rest of country didn't want too much. Workers faced all of the normal issues.

June Days 1848: National workshop men/revolutionaries meet to discuss and they become violent and fight declare new provisional gov. But it was crushed and order restored. It was violent though and many killed.
This was CLASS WARFARE between bourgeoisie of constituent assembly and the national workshop workers. (****this was the problem w liberalism, it sometimes goes against itself) - class hate

-Upper classes fear its a repeat of french rev

Napoleon III emerges bc want a strong executive leader to curb chaos. President elected by universal male voting, which elected Napoleon by popular mandate because they recognized his name. He had advanced good ideas Goal was to restore the glories of the empire.
-in fact, the middle class unlike the working class actually supported Napoleon III because they wanted stability and conservativsm instead of liberalism so there was more stability for business
--Constituent Assem. dissolved and now legislative assem. It was not mostly reps through, mostly monarchists plus others - anti socialist, undid some socialist stuff --> even an antirep government now ------To get re-elected, Napoleon was nice again and gave universal suffrage back. coup d' etat at this time, Nap III king again and the 2nd rep died. NO parliamentary gov now

Btw - conservatives are divided in Legitimists and Orleanist

England

1848

England did not have a full out revolution or conflict but it was still visible. Such as through chartist agitation that was revived by the february revolutions.

Germany issues - FIX THIS

Approx. 1848 - Approx. 1850

German states were a collection of over three hundred divided states. They struggled to consolidate. Super complex reality. Lacked political systemic realities to do this. - also lacked a territorial reality.
Main concerns: unification, industrialization, social stratification/class conflicts (upper class fear of peasant upsrising) Aristocrats didn't really want unification because it would compromise their own independence and ruling power.
Foreign leaders also don't want unification because German unification would disrupt the BOP.
Middle class thinks Germany can't consolidate if its eco system is so messed up where the lower classes are in total poverty with unfair distribution of opportunities. Still some degree of modernization with machines taking jobs from people only making things more unstable.

Unification?? will it include Austria or Prussia or both
Frankfurt assembly - 1848, liberal ideas convening to help with german unification through free elections, civil rights
little liberalism in Prussa-frederick william never followed through with getting a constitution
government was pretty efficient though with high literacy,
1818 tarrif union in Prussia and Germany called ZOLLVEREIN
power vacuum in germany --. frankfurt assembly kinda in charge, but it didn't really do anything it was useless, more for show - it just showed how people supported liberalism. little lower classs upport for revolution - dependent on Austrian and Prussian militaries, asembly turned against rev movement, it failed, but first it did give more rights to people and completed a constitution
Prussia no want to combine with germany and get dragged down by it
failed revolutions lead to realism positivism and marxism
universal male suffrage in france 1850, new freeodms for peasants
augustus comte - french philosopher, ppositivism
new emphasis on realism seen in German politics with realpolitik, realistic politcs? more realistic than ideologic and deal with natural enemies and allies.

Early marxism in 1848 revolutions,

Revolutions in Austrian Empire

1848

Keep in mind Austria is super populous with many different cultural groups (german biggest group), SUPER diverse. It had large outreach and its influence was felt far. Super influential German state. Influence on Italy, Italy had always followed it except when Pope Pius IX got in charge.
---Metternich says gov needs no relationship w people, people don't like this about him

Magyars are dominant in Hungary. Magyars grew with more nationalism and pride.

March Days 1848:
Louis Kossuth - leader of revolution in Hungary. Violent insurrection in Vienna. Revolutions all around Germany. --> March Laws by Kossuth basically wanting liberal social stuff. But it falls apart, too many demands that were not specific enough.
**Metternich's Fall: Shows how chaotic it all is, gov is disoriented. People making constitutions.
Old government comes back to crush liberalism, especially in Russia bc middle and commercial class less devleoped here so revolution ahd a smaller base
revolutions in 1848 crushed lead to switch in perspective from idealism to pragmatism and romanticism to REALITY,REALISM, more scientific
slavic pride, pushing for slavid people to be equals with other nationalities

counterrevolution

1848

revolutions crushed by conservatives, military used force in prague to settle conlfict
Austria is magyar nationalist and doesn't really wanna be involved with germany. military also used to take back control in austria,
pope in italy killed
hapsburgs reassert authority
1964 syllybus of errors against liberalism, for catholics written by pope
Autrian empire oposes all self expression and uses force - super strict Bach system, gov was centralized

Independent Italy, Italian Unification

Approx. 1850

Influence on Italy from Vienna, Italy had always followed it except when Pope Pius IX got in charge.
Only one true Italian ruled dynasty, Kingdom of Sardinia which had it together good.
--> mad at Metternich bc he says Italy is only geographic expression but they want independence.

Inspired by nationalistic volksgeist in germany.

second french empire

1852 - 1870

fear of radicalism, Napolean III came into power. focused on progres
authoritarian
expansion
free trade with britain

russia

1856

some westernization
some reforms -1861 - Alexander II who tried to support liberals
-1861 serfdom abolished - ACT OF EMANCIPATION, peasants get some land
-gentry lose jurisdiction over villages

1830 europe population stabilization, marrying later

Italian Unification

1860

Italy is just a bunch of tiny states, people are disatisfied with gov and want liberal changes
Italian risorgimento - want for italy to rise more to the top again
Mazzini wanted unifcation
Cavour, prime minister, tried to make changes and reforms people would like like with fair gov and efficiency, he worked for constitutional and parliamentary practices - more realistic unlike romantic mazzini
-he tricked an "ally" austria into war with france to get land/territory (Lombardy to piedmond) he wanted
garibaldi pushes for land
Italia irredenta - reunite all of italy and get it together to be strong again
1870 division of churhc + pope

unification of germany

1870 - 1871

Germany wants to combine instead of having the states rival with eachother
it unification played important role - changed balance of power, WWII
germans becoming nationalistic wanting to be more powerful and the only way to do this is being stronger together

frankfurt assembly was attempt to unify germany politically - failed bc no legit power.
maybe what helped it unite was eco because they were doing pretty good like with eco unity and 1870s large outputs of coal and iron

1860s - Prussia + Bismark
Prussia's army was super strong and is what allowed them to be successful, to expand diplomacy
bismark - not a nationalist, didn't like democracy, socialism, liberalism
supported germany unification as a way to strengthen prussia, he was the master of alliances, the enemy of today is the ally of tomorrow, he basically does everything he can to get prussia ahead - liberals hate him
if germany unifies, prussian kids get to lead it

1867 - dual monarchy austria-hungary 1848 serfdom abolished

state 1860s state - same time at a-h - bismark wanted prussian unification because it strengthens prussia, he is a prussian nationalist

Chapter 19-20

World War I

1914 - 1918

After the War

1918

Theory that wars started by armament companies who want to make money. England + US also didn't want as much punishment after WWI for Germany. France wanted Germany to pay hardcore while England and US though they were too hard on Germany.
Both Austrian and Ottoman empires collapsed

Chapters 21 + 22

influenza pandemic

1914 - 1918

Killed most of the people in the war
ended long dynasties

World war I - fight THEN talk

1914 - 1918

WWI had stalemate (unclear result) but the talking was clear (germany 100% at fault)
WWII had clear outcome (unconditional surrender) but the talking was unclear (half of the time russia didn't do what they said they would)

Intro

1930

This is after WWI and after the 1930s with all of the chaos. Liberal values challenged everywhere with Mussolini and Hitler. The Great Depression had also happened in which the entire eco system broke down --> this is why there is a need for change.
--There is currently no war but there is no peace either. Germany, Italy, Japan, USSR not happy in the 1930s, everyone was dissatisfied about something from WWI. --> Funnels in WW2 bc want change .

US recognized Russia bc needed trading partner during great depression

The 1930s

1931

Eastern Europe: Dictators stormed
Western Democracies: Wave of PACIFISM after WWI, the US tries to keep for itself and stays un-involved. They thought this was the way to keep peace, and this is why they allowed for appeasement with Hitler because they didn't want to start anything. But Europe, like Russia, gets mad at their un-involvement.
The majority want to do whatever they can to avoid another horrendous war.
--France was passive because of the large amount of soldiers they lost in World War I, so France was more defensive (Maginot Line) than offensive. Many even looked to Hitler and Mussolini.
--US Oxford Resolution in 1933 to never take up arms for the country for any reason, a peace movement. Actual isolation with neutrality acts in 1935, 1936, 1937, forbidding export of munitions and loans. Lots of pacifism. The aggressors benefited by the US not helping the allies
England obviously feels the same way, thus appeasement for Hitler to keep the peace.
---Russia was revisionist and warned US about something bad going on in Germany. They wanted the US to get involved. (anger that they didn't listen - seeds of CW). Russia still salty from WWI where they lost land. Cordon Sanitaire in 1919 against spread of Bolshevism by US (Russian resent to US seeds CW). Russia continuous fear of being invaded, its in their history, so Russia wanted collective security, an international action against aggression, Russia then joined the League of Nations in 1934. Lot of immigration from russia.

Western powers do nothing about nazism spreading like to Austria. Hitler sends soldiers (mobilizes) to W germany where its supposed to be demilitarized but no one does anything. His army still weak now. This threatens french borders --> Maginot line for safety

---Italy generally kinda salty, didn't get any land out of WWI.
League of Nation is USELESS, didn't protect ethopia or manchuria from italy or japan. Japan invaded china.

Its difficult because Military = wartime and political factors = peacetime, but when doing things that had to do with alliances, freedom of sees, neutrality, Treaty of Vesailles, appeasement... are both peactime and wartime

France is all over the place - leftist by supporting soviet and popular front , but also anticommunist rightist.

Hitler and the Nazis

1934 - 1945

Tried to scare dem powers. He would take a little, say thats all he wanted and later take more. Took germany out of league --> fear for the democracies.
He refuses Locarno (pledge to secure borders of Germany, Belgium, and France

Germany + Japan kinda team up, have an understanding

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

Revolution in Spain - anticlerical legislation - secularization. Gov's program to redistribute land like teh peasants wanted wasn't too extreme like extremists wanted. Popular front (made of left groups like communists, socialists, republicans) against monarchists, army officials. Left vs right --> civil war. US + Europe want to sent forces to help Spain not to succumb to fascist forces. No one wants to get involved and make the conflict worse, US is neutral.
Germany + Italy enter and and help facists while Soviets entered and helped the republicans. Spanish civil war split sides to fascist vs anti fascist.
BTW - its a CW seed since Russia mad US didn't help and get involved.

The munich crisis + appeasement

1938

The Munich Crisis - climax of appeasement
Many germans still in czechoslovakia which was actually a pretty advanced place
Even though Russia, France, Czechoslovakia make an alliance together (france + england allow for appeasement w Hitler so hitler took the Sudetan then the rest of czechoslovakia. Russia tried to stand up but no western power came to help russia. They didn't think russia's military could win especially based on how far russia was. They weren't ready to fight like germany too.No one wanted to provoke hitler to fight. England started the appeasement when Germany mobilized.
Western democracies felt relieved and thought this was the end of hitler
Russia feels betrayed france did this and is afraid so 1939 Russia Germany treaty - Molotov Ribbentrop. Russia knew germany would invade them so Russia did this to buy themselves time (angers US, CW seed). Together Russia and Germany split poland, no one did anything about this even though locarno said you couldn't do it, so locarno essentially means nothing then if you can break it w/o consequence.

Hitler was trying to incorporate all germans into Germany, he was trying to achieve sovereignty and nationalism for them all. His goal in this crisis might also be to isolate russia from the western democracies.

Overall, this showed the weakness of the Western Democracies.

Later, Hitler kept getting more and more and the democracies realized his word meant nothing so they make military preparations

Appeasement ended with Nazi Soviet pact in 1939 (and WW2 starting) - Molotov Ribbentrop. Russia got some land and promised to germany to stay out of germany's conflicts w others. World is shocked by them getting together,

Germans invaded poland --> Britain + France declare war on Germany

World War II

Approx. 1939 - Approx. 1945

Most destructive conflict ever + most widely fought. Obviously built up eco and helped after Great Depression.
Technology: Weapons of mass destruction

Picking off after Munich Crisis:
-War started w Germany invading poland, they got it quickly through Blitzkrieg
Russia invaded Finland and was expelled from the league of nations for this aggression.
Russia still tries to spread revolutionary fervor with the comintern.
War was declared by France + Britain but they weren't really doing anything why it was referred to as the "phony war" - nothing was actually happening. This "phony war" gave hope that maybe there can still be peace and a full on war wouldn't break out. --> Hitler went along w this so he could make sudden offensive in 1940 Norway, Belgium, netherlands, France too. Allies thought German's main attack would be in Belgium so they sent soldiers there and when Germany didn't come from there it went kinda bad. (dunkirk)
Fall of France - everyone shocked a great power fell. Most french people just waited for it to be good again
Free french movement established under de Gaulle - a French resistance movement
Capital of France now Vichy and its mostly occupied by germans, new authoritarian regime lead by Marshal Petain + Laval. - The 3rd republic was dead. Germany is now controlling most of the continent (about what Napoleon controlled) bc USSR is neutral. Germany (under new continental system ) wants to expoit Europe and imprisoned many people. German's festung Europa, soldiers everywhere to create the "fortress of Europe"
Italy + Mussolini made their own moves and invaded France + Greece

1940 Britain only one left against Germany and appeal to US for help. This is when US starts to listen and tries to help England while still technically remaining neutral. Before 1939, US was 100% isolationist/neutral. POTUS FDR wants to get involved w/o actually having to fight. No more ban on arms, US was gonna come in and be savior of dem.

US starts to build army too

Germany was getting power so fast. Air war in battle of Britain. If britain falls now, the allies lose ans war totally over. Germany couldn't get to Britain so they move on to Russia invasion. Soviet wanted Baltic and Balkans while Germany distracted in war, so they aggressively took 3 baltic states. Russia expanding a lot like they always do. Russia and Germany want control over E Europe --> Hitler makes moves to get Balkans (romania bulgaria hungary)
Germany now wants everything else in Europe like what russia has like Ukranian wheat and oil of caucasus), 1941 germany invades Russia
Prior 1941 - Cash carry - come to US and pay us for supplies - on britian could realistically do this
after 1941 - lend lease -more for allies - but Hitler sees it as aggressive towards him.
-Russia mad after WW2 that US ended lend lease - but did US help Russia at all with rebuilding, besides that they agreed to give Russia the most reparations, or was Russia already cut off? - cut off - no one helped them rebuild

after germany invaded russia - which he said he would do in Mein Kampf - the two dictators Stalin and Hitler would never have lasted together in Europe.
Operation Barborossa - Hitler got SUPER close to the captial moscow but luckily it started to snow so they left. Russians fighting hard even though Hitler expanding elsewhere. Russians burned/destoryed some of their own supplies so the enemy couldn't get it and use it
Germany in N Africa - Britain in N African to help
Japan/Germany/Italy solidify alliance - Pearl Harbor - US enters War (underlying fear that Russia will drop out like in WWI and that US will be isolationist again)

War went super bad for a while
US RUSSIA ENGLAND (the grand alliance which promised to put their all and not make their own separate peace to save themselves) vs GERMANY ITALY JAPAN

Strategy is to focus on Germany, air bombard Germany
Russia want 2nd front - US not ready
Britain + US managed german submarines
1942 - the tide starts to turn - Stalingrad battle - Germans do bad compare to Red Army - Now russia on offense for war. Russia getting lots of US materials. War is more under control now even in Japan. Stalemate w Italy. Russia facing the brunt.
US opens second front finaly - Dday
Russia pushing German expansion back
Roman + bulgaria switched sides so now against germany
Russia + US pushing to center of Germany. - unconditional surrender demanded

US and Soviet Union "Allies"

1939 - 1945

WW2 - talk AND fight at same time so end isn't as messy as WWI

1939 - 1945

Wartime conferences

1940

Yalta - Roosevelt was mediator/more friendly with Soviets bc needed their support
Free elections in Poland/democratic values everywhere else
Polish boundary
Plan for United Nations
Germany divided into zones of influence
Soviets agreeded to enter war against japan

Potsdam -
Denazification
Prosecute nazi leader
Condition of reduced arms and military in germnay - Hitler mobilizedf
Disassemble Germany, Germans kicked out/fled
Western-Soviet coalition falling apart;
CHECK DOC ON DRIVE

Holocaust + Ending of War

Approx. 1943 - Approx. 1944

Holocaust - horrors, raised in concentration camps, given little food overworked - for people deemed inferior (jews) - mass genocide
-Also took place kinda in other countries like France, French jews were violated but mostly by French gov not german nazis.

Last phase of war:
Germany unconditional surrender.
Russia wants to help US in Japan to get influence there but US says no bc they have atomic bomb. - Japan surrenders

US and Soviet Union Enemies

1945 - 1991

Eco + Political reconstruction

Approx. 1945 - Approx. 1951

AFTER communism + containment slide
Despite setbacks and suffering, W Europe not to be written off, still had large population still with leading industry. They feared dependence on US.

US eco grew like crazy
Marshall plan worked really well. Europe eco almost back to normal now, extended to Soviets + E Europe too. US gave the money but they determined themselves what to do with it so they didn't feel too controlled by US. W Germany doing well to, by 1958 it was leading industrial nation in W Europe - help britain most - britain was helping them keep communism out of turkey and greece until eventually britain had to leave there because they didn't have the resources to stay there.
Eco got help from involved gov+ eco planning
-Lend lease ended after WWII
deficit spending to prime the pump
sustained eco growth --> labor shortages, immigrant flow to germany for jobs - immigration = social friction
--------------------------------------***Basically, when US and Western powers like Britain and France weren't involved and let the rest of the struggling world on its own and decline, you get chaos like hitler, so they want to be more involved to prevent facism and communism and stuff like that. The Marshall plan restored the world market.

Many european powers had eco boom. Huge eco boom 1940s-1960. The 50s and 60s were thought of as pretty good eco times. Except for England who only lost like it lost it colonies in India. Britain lost overseas markets and now its technology that WAS new, is no longer as new and efficient as the new stuff everyone else is getting. Western Europe prosperous in MOSTLY private, free market, capitalist eco but it was accompanying by eco planning and systematic government intervention
-Was this just them trying to be in the middle?

--more welfare - insurance, redistricution of wealth - tried to make it universal
----Gov intervention to prevent another great depression, Keynes' theory of priming the pump
Many sections of eco also nationalised tho to create more of a mixed eco w both private and nationalized
Eco growht --> labor shortage --> immigration iisues. Workers go west.

Postwar baby boom but by 1960s birth rate levels off and europe shows sign of pop decrease

MORE ECO: - Need to shape post world war eco
unstable politics but stabilizing prosperous eco
attempts to restore free flow of trade + stable currency --> discussed at Bretton Woods conference
effort for a world trade organization, made GATT (framework for negotiation and rules for solving problems within international trading --> WTO (World trade organization) it mediated agreements, this was also to try to keep strong against communism. Many involved but def not soviets
Currency stability - as sought in bretton woods cnoference to go back to gold standard. Gold standard briefly until 1971 but later floating currencies. International monetary fund created to give loans to governments. Also world bank created and made long term loans to poor govs.
Eco became more integrated, trying to get less dependent of US, need for global eco and flowing/togetherness of ecos, it would help unity and stability. Council of Europe but it was only about humanitarian/social issues. --> 1958 European court of Human rights to protect rights of individuals from gov, no death penalty or punishment in schools.
-Small customs Union called Benelux w Belgium Netherlands, etc. Later 6 western countries, Fra, Germ, Ita, etc made a coal and steel industries connected between countries, it was out of the hand of the individual countries - Created by france's Monnet: European Coal and Steel Community which eliminated import taxes + placed production under common authority. -> This spread more and with Treaty of ROme it created a large free trade area and created the common market, it thrived. This also helped to revive and reabsorb W germany into western Europe. The nations involved eliminated tariff barriers and developed a common tarrif with the outside world and free movement of capital and labor. Under a separate treaty they also agreed to coordinate nonmilitary atomic research and technology. In this common market, W Europe captured the new configuration of global affairs. Essentially, the smaller places influenced the bigger places to do this. 1967 European community made, their assemblies are the European parliament I guess for political stability also. Eco stability --> political stability

Britain stayed out at first and its eco continued to lag to other W european economies.
1958-1968 great gains in eco integration/unity but political unity was harder. European Union, De gaulle said, shouldn't be total authority over all nations bc nations need to keep sov. This is why de gaulle supported decoupling and having france be on its own.
-----------------EUROPEAN COMMUNITY created strong sense of common destiny, a shared faith in democracy, market economies and concern for human rights and social needs.
Eventually Treaty of Maastriant created European Union in 1992
Western Europe doing SUPER well, it even began to surpass the US like with steel production.
End of gold standard in 1971 - trade imbalances and issues were created- world eco not greaty affected so its still ok.

POLITICAL RECONSTRUCTION TOO:: renewing of parliamentary democracies. - only spain + portugal still dictatorships
Spirit of reform and call for union for peace
Christian democrats play large role in reshaping gov in Italy, Germany, France. \
EUROPE HAS FINALLY CHOSEN A PATH, ITS ALL ABOUT BEING IN THE MIDDLE NOW
Britain:
Economically exhausted - losing its empire/colonies
had parliamentary elections after a little while of none
from conservative churchhill during war to Attlee after who was more about socialism and welfare -
in the middle because more regulation than if it was private capitalism but still pretty advanced with capitalist components, stuff was nationalized like Bank of England, coal mines, electricity, iron, etc. -
Mixed eco - some for welfare some for capitalist profit
half nationalized some still private tho
1951 - 1964 shifting back and forth between labor party and conservatives, they didn't undo the other sides stuff maybe just a bit mostly added their own new stuff - averages in the middle -the constant switching diminished their global status
Reconstruction == now even prosperity yet still strikes higher wages wanted - inflation - also face struggles in North Ireland.

France -
doing better eco but still kinda hard - colonial wars with indochina + algeria
president is de Gaulle who wants to restore france to its greatness - new rep gov created (4th), purging collaborators. Coalition gov with communists socialists and mrp. Christian democrats form provisional gov
instability w still chaos 25 cabinets over a relatively small period of time (yet still significant legislation)
mixed eco developed - nationization of key industries, modernized eco, flexible eco planning (once again in the middle)
low birth rate for alittle while now
industrial expansion + welfare
Issues w 4th republic - it was trying to maintain colonial empire, the colonial wars left France really damaged, Indochina + algeria want independence, which De Gaulle + france recognize, independence to other french colonies. . --> After algeria crisis and de gaulle getting more power, 5th republic emerged, it was going pretty good at first too.
France got nuclear weapons too like only Britain, US, Soviets. De Gaulle later set himself up like a uncrowned republican monarch --> strikes which paralyze eco and threaten gov and stability
-----------------------------------------elimination of trade barriers, currency reform like in Germany then Gold Standard so everyone had the same
1940s -1960s: HUGE ECO BOOM
gov w many dem aspects but later de Gaulle built a government which kept civil liberties but got rid of democracy as a whole.He was uncrowned republican monarch - in middle average - no one liked this
France became worlds 5 industrial power 1960
EVERYONE IS IN THE MIDDLE BC THEY ARE IN BETWEEN PROGRESS AND TRADITION
Germany:
Nuremberg trials, punishment for war criminals. Denazification. Germany showed the divisions, E germany became German Democratic Republic while west parliamentary gov germany became Federal republic of Germany. Mixed eco under a social market economy with private capitalist stuff as well as planning and welfare. They made the basic law which was similar to a constituion but not exactly, it was in the middle social market eco in middle. Mixed gov, coalition gov. Christian democratic Union with leader Konrad Adenauer was one of the parties. He became leader and strenghthened W germany and got good relations w France. It is still divided and under military occupation. Brandt's grand coalition of political parties and also supported Ostpolitik that encouraged building a bond and maintaining relations with USSR and Eastern Europe so that if they ever did unite, it would be good.

Reform - integration of labor/management with coalition gov w social dems and christian dems

Italy:
After mousollini fell and they were trying to push germany out, they were ready for reform and supported the new gov. Voted to abolish savoy monarchy, a new republic without it. new constitution
Eurocommunism - still communism but more aware of not being as crazy I guess, each place would have to find its own way to societey thorugh parliamentary democracy. Christian democrats as dominant party. Communism weakening here tho overall but still some commie rat bastard leaders.

Purges in Russia - xenophobia, getting rid of people they don't like

Peace after WW2

1945 - 1946

No clear treaty of discussion. The talking of end of war happened before war actually over.
Atlantic Charter - 1941 - US not even in war but just talk about US and England what about after war - self determination lik 14 points
Casablanca - uncon. surr.CHECK DOC ON DRIVE
Tehran - discuss after + 2 front - germany demilitarization
Yalta - almost won - dilemma here bc talking about war end and want to keep US dem ideals but don't want to make their alliance for war mad
What to do about Poland + Eastern Europe? Russia wants to keep gained land as a buffer
Stahlin doesn't give Poland free elections like he said he would (CW seed)
Germany to be disarmed and divided into zones for each of the 3 powers to control
United Nations made - international police, mostly about bigger powers

Potsdam after germany collapsed - US soviet disagreements.
Denazification, demiliatrization, punishment of war criminals

Poland borders changed
Germany divided in half where US and Russia met in middle
Treaty signed w/ reparations and territorial adjestments
Germany signed no treaty, its still divided for a while

**prosecute nazi war criminals
-divide germany to 4 zones
-divide vietnam at 17th paralllel
reduce size of germany by 25%
reparations mostly payed ot russia
-return land germany took to original owners

US - open system after
Soviet Union - closed system after

US is the man power and ascended to top while Europe on the decline

Opening Decade to Cold War

1945 - 1955

1945/1950 known as contemporary history, stuff that happened here is still affecting us now directly
Problems/ Questions after war
---Atomic bomb was a whole new issue - war is unthinkable bc could lead to whole demise of humans
---Still problem of organizing industrial society. In Russia gov is all encompassing, gov control all the money and how its passed out (socialist - lack of freedom to everyone) and US where capital was sometimes owned by private persons (capitalist - in eco crises threats to eco security of workers was worse)
----What to do about national sovereignty, how nat sov can everyone be. Nations all dependent on eachother and share stuff but not That much. United Nations created by anti axis power to make cooperative solutions for international problems. General assembly + Security counsil (5 great powers). At first, no one wanted to listen to it and give up their nat sov. Roussea bc give up individual agenda to benefit from being in the group.
Cold War realities involved US, Soviet union, Asia, Latin America, Middle East based on realities of stuff going on and perceptions/misperceptions

WW2 left US + soviet as the two great powers in charge, world looks to them. US was unscathed by war and came out w great eco but Russia was devastated. Bi-polar system emerges.
Unhappy relationship between the two where they see everything that the other does as aggressive and provoking, it was seeded in deep historical and ideological differences in culture. US looks for market in E Europe.
After War soviet wanted to keep land to have a buffer as well as use this opportunity when they at top to spread communism. US perceives this as Russia trying to dominate (the world or the continent or whatever) --> US strategy of containment (Kennan's policy based on history) which was supposed to be about containing in Europe, not the actual spread of communism, you can;t stop someone from thinking a certain way. US gives no influence to soviets in Italy + Japan.
Already soviet didn't give poland free elections like they said they would. Fear in US that Russia will repeat what Germany did. Soviets stayed in Korea even after fighting in Japan was over.
Britain act as gaurdians to Mediterraneana nd Middle East to Russia kinda.
Communism in Greece and Turkey, but Stalin doesn't care about them because his red army isn't there, he cannot effectively control them. But then why did US and containment care so much about every little place w commies if Stalin didn't even do that.
Containment as CW seed

Mutual mistrust - arms race
US knows Soviets will get bomb soon so they say lets just put a pause on this whole thing and have some more regulation on it. We can go to inspect each other's progress. Soviets say no, why agree to a stop when you're behind.
British fear US isolation
1949 Soviets get bomb, we get H bomb, then they get H bomb
Used military for containment

Iron curtain in Europe between E + W
Soviets mad bc US ended lend lease and didn't really help w rebuilding

US takes over to block commies in Greece + turkey cause britain no enough $. Truman's statement to protect world from commies - Truman doctrine committed US to involvement in globabl military + eco. marshall plan, give countries money which they can do whatever they want with to quicken recovery. US being very involved not like mistake of being isolationist after WWI. People only look to commies if situation in their country is bad w bad eco so make it good so they don't look to it
Soviets feel threatened and encircled with teh US always everywhere w atomic bomb too
--> soviets realized needed to exert closer control on communists all over the world --> new Communist information bureau or Cominform.

Issues in Germany:
US trying to help lots so we don't end up w repeat - make fast reconstruction in Germany, Russia however want to use germany's resources to fix itself.
Two germanys emerge with US France and Britain zones combined trying to make them not as dependent and revive germany to make a republic and soviet communist germany
Western powers make new currency for germany bc old was inflated and useless --> Russia blockaded Berlin, bc berlin not in center of germany but capital so US has part of it but it in over the Russians half. --> Berlin airlift

BTW ( Russia isn't actually capable of dominating world, they were so destroyed out of war, they were too messed up internally to look out)

Additional US + Soviet stuff

1945 - 1955

How US explains Soviet actions which only angers soviets more:
Iron curtain speech
Clifford Report
Truman doctrine/Domino theory
X Article
NSC 7
NSC 68

US policies - how it played out
Marshall plan
containment
NATO
Korean War
nuclear arms race
vietnam

Result--> 0 sum game
action reaction - escalating a lot
nuclear race - the nuclear weapons actually create some stability in that they are the only things keeping these two nations from fully obliterating and going after eachother

NATO

1949

Comes after slide opening decade to CW
1948 - Britain France, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg form W European union for collective self defense. (only military)
US makes even larger military alliance for collective security. An attack on one was an attack on all. US committed ot W europe security from soviet expansion + help w rearmament there. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - no include soviet union only provoking them more (CW Seed) --after 1949 - Russia was contained, they left Turkey and Iran. Italy, Yugoslavia, and Greece had defied communism w US and western help.

W Europe making good eco recovery w Marshall plan help. Marshall plan and US eco assistance to W europe was also a CW seed
Russian Response to this: Angry and continue nucelar research, added to their military and air power, and create Warsaw Pact of 1995
1950 stalemate in Europe - continent divided, Germany divided , Berlin divided,

Communism + containment

1950

AFTER NATO slide

Communism wins in China - Western fear
US occupying Japan to stop communism there - Japan willing to cooperate in order to get stablity. Conservative leaders there push for eco recover + growth and Japan eco recovers super quickly and grows a ton. - example of successful western intervention - Britain and France allowed US to do this
Russia pact with China bc both communist and worried about western powers like in Japan

After WW2, it was agreed Korea would be independent of Japan + Russia. Korea unintentionally ended up being divided in two. Korean War kinda came as a surprise when Northern (russian part) invaded S.
-----Cold war couldn't actually be fought directly just USSR and US because then nuclear war, so they fight indirectly here in Korean war and "sponsor"/support their side
Cease fired agreed - containment failed in .5 of Korea
War made Germany start to rearm and built military strength

Arms race
1952 - US got hydrogen bomb - 1953 soviets get h bomb

Stalin + Russia don't help out turkey and greece after WWII because his red army isnt there to control it so he doesn't really care about it

Fear of communism spreading everywhere --> containment
This mass spread of communism isn't even possible bc nazis totally destroyed all of Russia
Russia has too many domestic issues to look internationally, and stalin holds it together by dictator ship

Russia (after WW2 during CW) - E Europe too

Approx. 1950 - Approx. 1960

Totalitarianism continues: Stalin still leader, great development BUT - purges for nationalism and xenophobia (he didn't trust these groups), purging unworthy people, he controlled Eastern Europe, had nuclear weapons, dictatorship, forced collectivization in countryside (of agriculture, basically controlling all of the agricultural production). No one could go against anything or there would be consequences. Famine
Stalin had helped russia industrialize in 1930s
He was controlling and forceful, he like Robespierre, used terror to achieve his goals of totalitarianism and a secure country. Even soldiers returning from the war were not trusted as they had seen the west and Stalin thought maybe they would want to go to the free-er west and not be loyal to the soviets anymore. They were forced to work. Secret police in Russia (the NKVD and later the KGB) continued forced labor camps.
-Still a degree of antisemitism (anti jew) here too.

1953 Stalin died. Communist party decided not to let any one person dominate that much again. It would be tough to follow Stalin's legacy but in Khrushchev's secret speech, he attacked Stalin (with the purges and how millions of innocent people killed) and disagreed with some of his actions but was careful to never disagree with the actual communist party. Khrushchev supported a relative "thaw" in strictness. More cultural and intellectual freedom. Btw this is all relative for russia, it was still pretty strict there.
Khrushchev also realized the Soviet eco wasn't very stable or strong like other economies, and he new this could be a problem in future so he addressed it with decentralization.
Nuclear weapons research - H bomb and Sputnik - US soviet race to teh moon.
Focus on eco and military spending - regardless of Khrushchevs efforts there were still big flaws. Tried to reform agriculture to little avail. He wanted both heavy industry and thriving agricultural production. He supported peaceful coexistence kinda w west. He backed down in the cuban missile crisis and his reforms to the party and agricutlure failed --> his downfall.
Brezhnev Doctrine - basically Soviets will help Eastern europe. it countered truman doctrine/marshall plan?? - to protect socialism
Though it wasn't as intense as teh Russian Revolution, Communism made some advances and spread a bit to wherever Stalin's huge red army was. Around the 1920s, areas that allied people though were anti communist buffer places were not communist. Consolidated control in Eastern Europe. Kinda coalition gov, commies share power.

Agrarian reform with redistribution of large estates and more efficient land use. Nationalization of eco . Accept Marshall plan but didn't want to become western pawn so communists weakened any not communist parties in place where there was still communism

Yugoslavian communist leader Marshal Tito who defied moscow . Soviets try to cooperate with rest of Eastern Europe eco and politically, Soviets are a big market for other smaller countries.
Places like Poland still want independence.Hungary rebels against Russia, they wanted parliamentary gov and to cut ties with soviet union. --> Soviet union responded with violence, Khrushchev sent soldiers

Chine

1951

1949 China falls to communism. China war with Japan. China wants to be independent and powerful in the world. China followed soviet example with totalitarianism and purges.
Mao mobilized a lot and tried to rebuild ico - "the great leap forward" to quickly boost eco and agriculture - DISASTER yet some industrial progress
cultural revolution
eco break down, total chaos, lives lost - it was this chinese resolution
Stalin didn't even support how powerful this new communist country had become but they did make agreements and helped eachother out.
China said they would be peaceful but actually aggressive foreign policy

China clash with soviets
US better relations w china, makes soviets jealous

Chapter 25

Confrontation CW period

1945 - 1955

Confrontation vs Coexistence

1955 - 1975

INTRO: 1950s - W Europe + Japan get American aid to rebuild and start to grow/thrive - Western Europe is bounded w connected economy, even global eco was becoming more interdependent
--Nuclear arms race - weapons built for deterrence (make the other power fear you using your nuclear weapons so neither of you use them). Bipolar world. Developing world pushes for independence and China is now a major player. More global eco interdependency

Confrontation vs Coexistence - SEE GOOGLE DOC
-After Stalin died in 1953 --> periods of detente, relax of tension not friendship, where Soviet leaders start to see there needs to be cooperation and arms control.
**Ironic stabilization of CW in 1955 - The more stabilization here in Europe now the more unstable everywhere else gets. Korean war over, NATO, Warsaw pact (the two kinda balanced each other out). Still divisions but they were clear and settled --> no threat of direct military confrontation.
-1955 treaty w/ the two powers + Austria left Austria independent + neutral. (coexistence), agreed to leave Austria out of it
-Khrushchev as new Soviet leader, he is only kinda like Stalin but he still hates capitalism. Still he realized some coexistence + peace needed just like how US recognized it. Coexistence was necessary because the main goal at this time is safety in nuclear age. Mutual assured destructured --> US isn't as determined and set to protect W Europe if Soviets make a move on them because then Russia would retaliate. --> (eventual decoupling which most of western europe didn't want but de gaulle did because France would have to be independent). De Gaulle didn't want France to be so under the US grip so he withdrew from NATO. Western Europe gets nervous that now with mutual assured destruction, the US won't be as readily interested in helping the Western European countries if Soviets did something.
Containment still going on.
Geneva conference --> small crisis over Berlin, Russians want US to stop sending to E Germany --> Camp David
Khrushchev criticized at home for being too willing to work with the US and compromise who the Soviets have always been. Spirit of coexistence directly interrupted with confrontation
US tries to stay uninvolved when Soviets extert power over Poland to stop their reform or sent troops to Hungary
Suez Crisis 1956: US stopped Britain, France, Israel form getting involved in Egypt. Soviets not involved. Signified embarrassment for B + F and downfall kinda of Britain.
Eisenhower Doctrine - US will defend middle east and help anyone who is fighting communism.

Arms race + space race (confrontation) - Sputnik, ICBM

Kennedy only aggravated the Soviets by saying US would do anything to stop any threat to liberal democratic ideas. Sent foreign aid to Latin America.
Cuba worked with the Soviets .--> Kennedy's Bay of Pigs invasion to stop communism in Cuba, Cuba mad so Soviets put nuclear warheads in Cuba.

1961 - Berlin wall made by Soviets to stop Eastern Germans from going to the west. (confrontation)
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 - super close to nuclear war. Khrushchev backed down at last moment.

Vietnam War (indirect confrontation) - have to fight indirectly
Vietnam was divided at Geneva conference but North Korea (w soviets who lent assitance in ways besides sending soldiers) advance on the south so US back up the south bc containment. - War dragged on and on and drained the US
----Western Europe was critical of this involvement. US began to pull out of Vietnam --> communist victory. Cambodia + Laos also fell to communism
Huge political and moral costs
Tensions between China + Soviet Union

Confrontation + Coexistence CW period

1955 - 1970

Eastern Europe Stuff

Approx. 1960 - 1969

Brezhnev as main leader
Eastern Europe longs to be "free" from Soviet Union's control
1968 - LOTS of reforms in Czechoslovakia (called Prague spring) but Brezhnev crushed it and released soldiers all over Eastern Europe to suppress revolution, it threatened Soviet leadership
--Brezhnev Doctrine proclaimed soviet right to intervene in any communist country to protect socialism
(contrasted Truman doctrine)

More detente with Soviets + US. US approach to help Soviets w eco help to induce cooperation and peace (nixon kissinger policy) - Soviet needed Western help
The two Germanys moved closer together economically and in 1973 entered United Nations as two seperates.
No more bipolar system - 1965 -
US + China relationships open up and improve forcing the soviets to pursue detente.

Confrontation, dissolution, super complex CW period

1970 - 1991

Global Eco

Approx. 1970 - Approx. 1985

Expansion of global eco after WW2 + interdependency
1974 - eco boom that had been continuous until then came to stop and eco slow and inflation starting in late 1960s
Oil embargo was the straw that started the crisis - oil was super important and readily cheaply available from Middle east, Oil exporting countries form OPEC to stop monopoly on oil from forming
Higher oil prices - good for Middle least - political and eoc unrest in Europe
Lower oil prices - good for Europe - political unrest in Middle east
--1973 Arab Israeli war where Arab oil states embargo on oil to places thought to be supporting Isreal - OPEC cut back production and raised prices - all this caused lots of chaos with global eco like inflation and problems w embargo.
Second oil crisis when Iran and OPEc raised prices in 1980 - they also impeded free movement of tankers through the persian gulf so US and Western countries get involved w navy. It was okay bc other sources of oil and energy found - embargo causing countries in serious debt after bc of fall of demand on their oil

Global eco decline (recession) by late 1970s (Britain hit hard - Labor party wants more nationalization of industries). Unemployment but it was okay because labor unions and welfare. Eco stagnation and inflation, --> government spending. US eco not the best so countries look to powerful German eco. - Under control in 1980. Govs collect more money now
- attacks on costly welfare state - gov spends on defense but stops spending on social stuff. Supply side economics (help private companies) + trickle down.

Margret Thatcher - first woman prime minister in a major western country. Her policies helped Britain have very good eco, low inflation, more productvitity yet still high unemployment. - 1990 recession --> moderate labor party in power

5th french rep - 1980s France politics more to the left (socialists push back after conservative doings) - labor reforms and banks nationalized, they tried to prime the pump but it kinda backfired and costs increased so France wasn't as competative globally
then it kinda got back up idk. more eco problems made the socialists lose support tho (cohabitation returned w conservatives)
1990s strong french eco but still unemployment
In france, more women writers and scholars, new laws about women having equal chance in elections

Socialists in Western Europe continued modernization, market eco, eco growth - these policies won them support (leaders like Gonzalez in spain)
Social democratic gov in west germany lead by Schmidt - it was still most productive nation in western europe but heavy labor costs

American eco - US recovered soon from recession, inflation but after it stopped eco grew in 1980, unemployent under control, still eco concerns like after oil crisis. competition w europe and japan
Japan growing like crazy
US decline in growth - others think it might lose its primacy

1987 momentary shock in eco was felt all around the world showing the interdependency.--> great powers meet to keep an eye on global eco and individual eco, OECD (Economic cooperation and development) and GATT continued. Also, the Single European Act 1987 - uniform tax rates,common standards, more fair/on the same page.

More countries over time joining the European union, especially AFTER 1989 after Soviet union collapsed and eastern european nations joined. There was still not 100% free trade by every nation.
IN GERNERAL THERE IS A LOT MORE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION WITH GOVERNMENT LEADERS MEETING PRETTY FREQUENTLY WITH EACHOTHER.
1970s third industrial revolution with automation and computers. Western Europe lags behind Japan and US still recovering from eco recession. Also, the Single European Act 1987 for Europe to kinda try to get back in it - uniform tax rates,common production standards, recognize eachother's professional and commercial licensing, more fair/on the same page. All to create 1 europe, without borders. They agreed to make common defense and foreign policy, thus by teh Treaty of Maastricht (1991), European community became European union. It was the largest trading bloc in global eco with 40% of world trade in this

SALT I

1972

US + Soviet nuclear arms agreement (coexistence) - agreed to reduce antimissile defense system to work towards equality in offensive weapons. - hold offensive weapons to a fixed number for a 5 year period

Helsinki Accords

1975

**Example of coexistence:
Resembled a peace conference and allowed them to look at unresolved issues. - Met consistently over 2 year period - hope of peace - this was a conference on security and cooperation in Europe, Worked for peace
Ratified territorial boundaries established after WWI
Set up watch committee to watch human rights in nations that signed the agreements, Soviets saw this as a good exchange for getting eco help and detente benefits.
Represented high point of CW detente
strongly tied world eco

China

1976

Mao died, Deng incharge, mix of planned and market eco. Emphasis on consumer goods. Deng reformed society in china, farmers sold products on free market. more food;. More relaxed cultural sentiment, they look at other cultures. Rapid eco growth yet inflation. Yet refusal for democracy
people want greater political freedom, gov gets suppressive to stop this. Gov blames western conspiracy.
eco modernization yet no political modernization??
China admitted to World Trade organization
population growth

Cold War rekindled

Approx. 1979 - Approx. 1985

AFTER GLOBAL ECO SLIDE

Carter as POTUS now who talks about moral idealism --> linkage - detente is now more focused on respect for human rights. US will only send eco help to Soviets if they permitt freedom to dissenters, allow Soviet jews to emmigrate, and end coercion of Poland. some cooperation with helsinki accords. This tiny level of cooperation worries western europe

(throughout all of this both sides are still building up their arms) yet also talks
SALT II never ratified because Soviets invaded Afghanistan, US cuts off exports to them. This was a huge threat to world peace. Soviets kinda got stuck in Afghanistan and lost a lot.

Adds to the rekindling of CW when reagan refers to them as the "evil empire" and he also backed up the largest peacetime military spending ever (to send to countries to help against communism). Reagan was super confrontational against communism he helped the opposite side against soviets in afghanistan and applied eco sanctions in Poland. He even supported repressive authoritarian govs as long as they weren't communism...hmmm. Soviets under eco strain but still built up navy and defense.
US trying to assert itself and get involved all around the world.

1960s both US and soviets building long range missiles. Attempts in non proliferation treaty but not ALL countries follow it. Nuclear power plants for peaceful energy made proliferation hard. Mutually assured destruction, each side has way too many, overkill.

Chapter 26+27

Intellectual and Social transitions in modern cities

Approx. 1900 - 1995

THIS IS THE LAST ONE
Overall theme of "ish" its good and bad
Much of these cultural and intellectual changes stemmed during the years 1871 to 1914
Science and technology expanded rapidly before WWI but even faster aftter 1919 than ever. At the end of 1900s, there were more scientists
new available stuff to promote health/relieve suffering, vaccines, surgery, (good + bad bc aging population then)\ - awful bc AIDS and HIV, avian/bird flue spread in Asia

entertainment - radio, movies, wahsing machines, freezers
1938 nuclear physics (good + bad) - scientific advances like this can be compared to scientific revolution in 16th + 17th centuries. E=mc2, studying the atom, Nazi scientists even helped with this
First atomic bomb 1945. Nuclear energy, by 1990s 15% world's electricity produced by nuclear power plants. (also bad because accidents) - government research on this made people fear that they were doing it for politics not for human good
all this research isn't postively affecting the environment. WIth all of the destructive weapons, science didn't really represent progress now. Genetics advances. DNA. GMOS.

rembrant's paintings of dutch middle class
Space competition - 1950s US soviets compete about rocket research, soviets sent first man into space but US got to moon first. 1980s space cooperation. After CW US and Soviets cooperate with space research.

(1910-1920)Freud + Psychology: studying human behavior, people argued he described only middle class males. "Relativism". Deny notions of certain cultures being superior

Philosophy: New way of thinking called Existentialism: 1940s - fear of individual getting lost in all of the material progress, moral ucertainty, and gains in science + technology. Human life lost higher purpose. Based on Pascal, Nietzsche, Kierkgaard, Sartre (french writer) , Camus. Idea that humans had to make their choice and be on their own, "comdemned to be free". Instead of just discussing stuff, actually do stuff about it. Need to reassert human freedom
Logic, Language, Literacy, Criticism, History - ethics, analytical knowledge,
Whitehead and Russel explore logic and math in Principia Mathematica in 1914
Logical positivism - bringing math into study of philosophy. - disintegrated by 1930s
Studying linguistics
1960s - decontructionism theory new method of analysis and critcism. To analyze something by taking it apart, everyone has their own interpretation (tolerance). Philosopher Derrida thoiught about the role of the critic.
New focus on history and studying it

Creative arts: Breakaway from old traditions; Rejection of total realism in art
1914 -1945 artistic revolution - art mirrored crazy politics and rationalism and optimism
Like picasso was - now its more about abstract art. Subjectivism which created a divide between artist and public.
Early to mid 1900s subjectvism in literature with Proust and Joyce
Postmodernism 1970s - in all art forms - mixed old and new traditions, this was different because it accepted materialism (Warhol, artist)

This battle of old vs new styles was also seen in religion - still modernism vs fundamentalism (revived in 1920s) (protestants)
W all the craziness and immigrants organized religion was hard. Ecumenical movemetn to unite all branches of protestantism and eventually christianity.
Second half 1900s good phase for roman catholic church, reaffirmed dogma.
Vatican II - name of the meeting of the second Vatican council which reshared catholocism. Church accepted principle of religious pluralism that catholics didn't have a monopoly over religious truth. Less restrictions but not too much change, still tradition.
Paul II 1978 - head of chruch, supported ecumenical movement and also showed tolerance by reaching out to non christians and traveling. During Cold War he had relations with Soviet union church. Conservative economist, some mad he failed to modernize the church more
Jews are almost everywhere now, they used to face harrasment in Soviet Union
Some non major western religious like in the east attracted people
Some acceptance of religious pluralism - immigrants brought their culture
Spread of fundamentalism (religious reform movemtns) in second half of 1900s - they rejected secularism modern

Youth Rebellion of 1960s - youth started to gather their own cultural identity, widespread youth activism, rebelliousness
1968 - riots and battled police all over the world by students, worker in France also went on strike, mad about vietnam war, violence of civil rights movemetn
kids show rebellion through rock music
college, Vietnam, Civil Rights - the rebellion faded by 1970s
Emergance of the new Left - dismissed older revolutionaries, attacked materialism and conformity, many called for militant confrontation

Women's Liberation Movement - second half of 1900s, some had started a bit earlier like with Stanton in 1848 or late 1800s suffragettes demand the vote in Britain. By later 1900s most countries allow for women to vote. But still other stuff needed for women, it was paired w civil rights.
Betty Friedan THe Feminine Mystique
Simone de Beauvoir The Second Sex (in france) - liberation movement - still legal discrimination like with property rights - motivation to use education skills
In less devloped countries women still working for basic human rights.
United Nations supported universal rights for women
Women in teh job market, women starting to enter political life with higher positions
1960s contraceptive technology, legalization of abortion technology, begin to demand equal compensation

Issues in Russia - opening up

1980

In 1980s, basic structures in Soviet Communism start to unravel and crumble. --> then in 1989 central and eastern European communist regimes also collapsed with no violence. --> 1991 Communist regime in Soviet Union collapsed and USSR disintegrated into Russia and other nations (which were now free and could decide things for themselves)
It wasn't even super violent, they disintegrated from within (kennan and containment was right). Peacefully revolutionary since something that had been in power so long was now drastically changing.
Political revolutions in 1989 - Eastern Europe with ideas of human rights and civil society.
Collapse of Soviet Union 1991 - end of Cold War - (*****The idea of the boomerage effect where there was crisis in the Soviet Union --> collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe--> come back to the collapse of the Soviet Union --> which goes back out to impact all of Europe)
--Also, this all shows Marxism was wrong - he said capitalism would crumble itself but no capitalism is only spreading and now democracy is even starting to reach Eastern Europe
US loss of purpose after CW what now

Crisis: Starts with the changes in 1985 (by Gorbachev)
-He was in power because the bad old leadership of Brezhnev, Adropov, etc
-Focused on fixing deep economic issues of the centrally planned economic system, he wanted to keep the USSR together, help the soviet union
-focused on keeping socialism by supporting openness and reform
-Started perestroika: a drastic modification of the planned command economy, it might have been good before but now it definitely was not. - Gave more freedom for creativity, raised quality, decentralized, produce for customer's needs, people could actually sell stuff and make their own profit.
-These critical changes in eco also require changes in politics --> Glasnost: openness (globally and internally cause more freedom of speech and of the press) - totalitarian control was ending
Gorbachev essentially took Khruschev's thaw and magnified it. Freedom of the arts, jews were allowed to leave, people were free-er and generally less fearful. Legal codes encompassed civil liberties and allowed freedom of expression and reduced police abuse. Secret police KGB was looked down upon.
-Gorbachev even spoke of some religious tolerance.
Gorbachev greatly criticized Stalin --> didn't openly criticize communists but he decreased their power through Constitutional reforms **in 1988 that created new legislature, multicandidate elections, like Lenin's NEP. He tried to build a wide base of support for himself.
Gov was more open + honest with the people. 20% pop in poverty
Many of the economic reforms sounded good but the actual changes were small, Gorbachev realizes he has to reform not try to redo the system. Little agriculture reforms, production didn't rise, so he supported small independent farmers
Nevertheless, his reforms still loosened the monopoly and grip of the communist party
1989 multicandidate elections were held - Gorby as president
Dilemma - some say he is going to far, some say not far enough - hard to make progress when divided
Issues tho cause long suppressed ethnic tensions revealed.
the republics part of USSR start to demand independence, especially the baltic republics
Outside of Russia:
Gorby supported universal human interest/rights and interdependency. Gorby pushed forth with Detente and removed troops and weapons from eastern europe, ended war in Afghanistan, and had arms reduction agreements w/ US (START talks in 1981) (it would help relieve bad military burden on eco)
1985 - abruptly better relations US +Soviets - Gorbachev meetings with Reagan. Each agrees to remove their missiles in Europe. Gorbachev agreed to destroy many of their weapons
1990 - end of CW proclaimed
1991 - Bush and Gorby agree to down scale weapons

Also, the fact that Russia hadn't totally dominated in Afghanistan like the Red army normally did showed a crack

Collapse of Communism in central + eastern Europe
The central and eastern European nations see how Gorbachev is being more open with more freedoms and these countries want this for themselves.

-

Collapse of Communism in Eastern/Central Europe

Approx. 1984 - Approx. 1986

Central/Eastern European countries under Stalin like party bosses resistant to reform. These communist leaders are more stalinistic than in the Soviet Union.
Yet...totalitarianism is starting to weaken because they need help and are accepting eco help from western democracies. Some start to pressure for more human rights like those established with the Helsinki accords. They also felt their eco systems needed reform bc of stagnation.

Poland:
1970s/1980s demand for eco reform and political liberalization so much so that the leader Gomulka was having trouble controlling it that he used force to put down strikes, he persecuted church leader. Protest rise in food prices. Replaced by Gierek who had new eco program that relied heavily on the west's $ (loosening) (fail)
High food prices --> strikes, they want change
-trade union federation, first of its kind in any communist country, lead by Walesa. Workers called for free elections and for their organization (solidarity) to have a role in the gov - Soviets put pressure on Poland to stop - Jaruzelski imposes martial law and banned solidarity. Pressure continues and he starts his own reform program. LATER, Gorbachev encouraged reform in Poland. (Soviets encourage liberalization! not stopping it, showing Brezhnev doctine is dead)
Parliamentary elections, wow no more communism

Hungary:
1956 attempts for reform by communist party but Soviets use force to crush it. The leader Kadar supported easing up. Turned to west for investment. Limited reforms. Multiparty elections and new leadership dissolved the communist party in Hungary, social,social dem party instead. Country reasserted national independence and restored self gov + civic freedom. East Germans could escape east germany by going through Hungary.

German Democratic Republic (East Germany):
Leader Honecker for a long time refuses reform. Thousands of East Germans left through Hungary showing how unhappy they were there. 1989.
Pressure and unrest in Germany --> uprisings to get Honecker out of power, Gorbachev says he won't help. The new leader promised free and unrestricted travel and free elections. Berlin Wall was taken down 1989 - point of no return. Even more leave now.
End of censorship, new parliamentary supervision, free elections
Now that wall down and E germany no longer communist, there was reunification of the Germanys by Kohl the Christian democratic leader of W Germany. Other countries supported it as well like the main powers. United Germany was lead by Kohn the Christian democrat so they united under democracy (wow huge win)

**By end of 1989 the communist regimes in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania all fell.

Czechoslovakia:
Before, Prague spring was crushed
Charter'77 formed, an organization formed after Helsinki accords who rallied against the dictatorship. Demonstrations broke out 1989 reformers came together and demanded government's resignation. Havel lead these reformers in the "velvet" revolution, called this since no bloodshed.
Free press + free elections and dissolved secret police. Abolished teachings of marxism
Havel became president. Super strong democratic transition, developed parliamentary democracy. Slovakia wanted independence so they split into two sovereign independent nations.

Bulgaria+Romania:
Revolutionary spirit in bulgaria. People demanding end to communist dictatorship. New replacement had parliamentary election and eco reforms.
People in Romania wanted more reform, the leader was super autocratic and browed from the west because he, like stalin, wanted to modernize, whatever the human cost was. Revolution broke out and hte government used force and violence to suppress it. Even though there was still communism here, the opressive dictatorship had ended. The expression of more freedom and anti communism was their leader ceausescu was assasinated.

Gorbachev played a crucial role in that he didn't get involved to stop the collapse of communism elsewhere, he let it happen. --> sets up for soviet union to collapse itself
To summarize, this collapse of communism there was largely due to the growing eco ties w the west, contact with the west during detente, growing want for better human rights after Helsinki accords. Courage of the rebellients and Gorbachev not getting involved to keep communism. The huge flight of East germans to west germans symbolized how badly the east wanted to be free and get rid of communism

Collapse of Soviet Union

1991

Not violent at all. USSR dissolved into its republics and Russia.
People saw they were losing grip over Eastern Europe - mad
1990s eco worsened, Gorbachev kept trying to fix it with reforms but the economy barely changed each time
Gorbachev replaced officials who didn't support his reforms and abandoneed the 500 Day eco plan to free prices and get a market eco, he is facing all of the dilemmas of a revolution, how far do you go, how do you stay in charge, how much how quick without undermining everything. Reformers want him to do more, Hardliners think its too much.

Baltic republics had declared independence in 1990 (they were a Soviet Republic and saw how eastern european regimes broke free and they wanted to do the same), Gorbachev didn't sent troops to change this but the military took it upon themselves to go to Lithuania. There was bloodshed. --> Only gonna make them wanna leave more. --> reformers start to question Gorbachev, they see that the whole entire system needs to be changed and maybe Gorbachev wasn't the one to do this, Gorby mad and said he knew what he was doing. --> democratic reforms look to Yeltsin instead who attacked Gorbachev and gains power, elected president. He immediately gave independence to the baltic states and self gov for Russia and other republics.
---Gorbachev tries to keep things together by negotiating with teh republics to give them more autonomy --> "union treaty" to allow for more shared power with republics and political federation. (not all but most agreed) - Hardliners mad about abandoning the union that was always just lead by Stalin and Russia so attempted August Coup (supported by KGB and Gorby's own officials) to get him to cooperate which he didn't so they try to seize power. These plotters (Putschists) thought it would be easy but it failed. Yeltsin gained support by supporting Gorbachev and threatened those who supported the coup. (this was fake help cause Yeltsin never followed through with it he only wanted to look good)
--> violence. Gorby resigns, he had just wanted to keep the USSR together.
Yeltsin as President denounced the communist party,
Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus drop out of teh USSR and it dissolves. They were the ones who first created this. Other republics agreed and the Commonwealth of Independent States was created.

Gorbachev had made fundamental changes that simply got ahead of him, he altered totalitarian system.

After Communism, now what

1992 - 1993

Communism now just in China, North Korea, Vietnam, Cuba, none in Europe.
Communist parties in Europe decline and lose fervor. The idea of marxism starts to fade and is looked at negatively. The proletarian doesn't really find it appealing anymore
--> Overall triumph of Liberalism - people want free elections, political rights, and human rights.
Rejected centrally planned command economy which deprived them of decent living standards.
People hated the privilages and luxuries the communist party elites had.
This is all super intense because they have the framework for democracy but if it goes wrong they could go back to authoritarian gov.
Difficult transition to competative market economy and representative democracy. To be realistic and stick in any way to their roots, they weren't going to be toatally Laissez faire.
Countries w market eco and democracy had to deal with economic instability, insecurity, unemployment

Russia after 1991:
Its just Russia now. The soviet republics are now individual states. Russia was still huge and made up of multiple ethnicities. It was still a significant world power simply due to its size.
What about USSR nuclear weapons? Yeltsin makes agreements where Soviet keep it all, but US comes in and makes agreement that they dismantle some and get money in return.
Lots of separatist pressures which the freed republics got their own constitutions, flags, anthems. Had to deal with CHechya which was actually separating.
Yeltsin faced big eco problems internally. Transition to market eco was failing, people weren't doing so good, production declining and living standards sank. --> erosion of gov authority --> crime and corruption
US money help wasn't helping too much, it was still crazy. Deregulation of prices, cut subsidies to state industries, more private companies. Living standards decrease for most except those who could buy into the private business (oligarchy like situation with these businessmen/gangsters)
Yeltsin was struggling and groups "attacked" him. He called for a new constitution and new elections. Issues with officials and things became violent.

He had a lot of power (given by new constitution) but little support and authority.
Some communist officials won in the free elections (typical of this kind of stuff)
Because things weren't working out so well with little support, Yeltsin had to abandon some of the eco reforms and restore controls on wages, prices, and profits. Ugh
Chechnya still wants to leave but Russia wants to keep its oil resource. At first Yeltsin did nothing, then in 1994 he sent troops but it failed so they bombed it instead, (violent), This lost Yeltsin support yet he is re-elected.
HUGE eco difficulties w currency devaluation and inability to pay foreign debt --> International monetary fund and western banks step in to stay away from total bankruptcy and disaster.
Bad eco--> bad politics. Yeltsin choses Putin as a successor.
Trouble in Chechnya.
1999 Yeltsin resigns, Putin as president. Yeltsin left a mixed record, he was first democratically elected president and also helped w USSR dissolution.
Putin's strong state and he seemed kinda a bit authoritarian, but won reelection. Putin wanted to be assertive and independent in foreign policy. Improved relations with China. Gradually strengthening eco. Russia had a constitution, civil rights, freedom of religion, free elections.
Issues after downfall of communism - ethnic nationalism, nationalism resurfaced after political suppression

Resurgence of nationalism and ethnic identities
Breakup of Yugoslavia (was communist) and death of Tito. Yugoslavia and other republics all lead by Tito, he kept it together by giving them all a degree of autonomy, andhe recognized the Bosnian muslims as a distinct national group with equal status. --> he died and separatist movements emerged. Yugoslavia regime collapsed when communism collapsed and they relaxed their authoritarian grip and held open elections. The different nationalities wanted to have their own nations and separate. Warfare broke out 1991. Serbs and Croats create trouble in Bosnia which had lived in mixed harmony for years. Serbs super violent ot he muslim population
--No one knew how to get involved and help. Security council embargo on Yugoslavia. NATO and the UN and US mediate cease fire and threaten air strikes. Agreements made
BUT, violence in Kosovo, Serbs want to separate and "cleanse" away the Kosovars. it got super violent. US and NATO get involved to keep stability and protect human rights. For the first time in 1999 NATO took a military offensive with air attacks against Serbia and bombing. The Serbs were violating human rights to their own citizens too and they said it was for humanitarian intervention.

In Eastern/Central Europe after 1989
--Europe no longer divided in East and West
--Communist nations moving towards democracy and free economy, BUT it was tough and many nations fell into crime, corruption, and cynicism to authority.
--In open elections, former communist officials won in almost every country in the former USSR

1989 Revolution - overthrew a failed system and focused on having the success (material) of the west instead of focusing of the democratic values to go with it.
--Attempts to confront and right the past, East Germany conducted trials and purges of former secret police. Czechs tried to ban those as informers?, Poles tried to move forward from past they had purges and opened police files.Some truth commisions like in South Africa.
Poland Hungary Czech Republic took the lead in trasition to democracy and market eco. THen Baltic states. All wanted to be in European Union.
Despite persistant eco problems, there was progress.

Western Europe after CW

Approx. 1992 - Approx. 1995

US emerges out of CW as the world's sole superpower. Nature of warefare changed with terrorism. Conflicts over competing religious or ethnic groups. Conflicts with the middle east against islamic groups in Afghanistan and Iraq.
-more communication with technology - sharing of cultures
-women's rights expand
-science evolves

Western Europe:
-unexpected eco issues
-German unification (kinda messes up BOP) (West German eco was so good, uniting w the East created issues and brought it down - currency devaluation and instability German eco was sluggish for a while)
-Still unemployment in west - high in 1990s - bad for young people (influx of immigrants/refugees doesn't help into w europe looking for eco opportunities), industries move to developing countries bc cheaper and W Europe rolls back on welfare state
-influx of immigrants changed ethnic composition of europe. Turks+muslims in Germany. Arabs+north africans in France, many ethnic minoitiesin britain
-xenophobia flared up again --assults on turks in germany - gov laws reducing immigration. France moved towards near 0 immigration
-rise of neo facism in Germany, Britain, Italy, France
- dissatisfaction with ruling parties like corruption with christian democrats --> like in Italy, coalition gov until popular support shrank and socialists took over from christian dems.
-general confusion in west, what now, we accomplished our long term goal
-nothing changed with the left and right. less being done to fully combine e and west europe
-Clinton gets US very good, little unemployment, more production. Clinton + Blair (british labor party leader) each got the economy to turn upward, by promoting prosperity and eco growth while also satisfying social needs) Labor party in britain took steps to devolution of power to a new parliament in Scotland. Settlement reached in N Ireland between catholic and protestants.
late 1990s - General slight movement for politics to represent the left and left center now. In Germany with Schroder. socialist leader in Japan
Merkel as Germany's first woman chancellor.
1990s - Japan eco expands greatly yet crisis in 1991 bc of uncontrolled speculation

European Union grew a lot in 2004, it was an economic superpower. World's largest single economic market.As agreed under Maastricht treaty, EU embarked on getting a voluntary common currency. (euro) European central bank in Frankfurt to help with teh authority and set monetary policy for member countries. To be admitted to the Union, a nation had to have liberty, democracy, human rights respect, freedoms, and rule of law. EU decides to have a collective military (moves towards common foreign and defense policies) this new military cooperation would mean an end to reliance on US help and dependence on them. European parliament.
Heads of government held regularly scheduled meeting (better communication)
Proposed EU constitiion - 50/50 support
now war seemed unimaginable
French german cooperation was teh force between European integration.

New phase of global eco that emerged after WWII - globalization - US as the driving force
more rapid efficient movement of capital and products
multinational corporations
new eco based on computer revolution and the internet - provided unlimited information
trade expansion
higher living standards
US obviously doing super well, by 1992 uninterupted growth, little unemployment
Concerns despite such growht by 1992
Japan still suffering from financial collapsein 1989 recoveredin 1990, continuous problems in Russia's bad eco
currency issues in Thailand, indonesia Hong Kong Singapore.
return to low wage laborin poor countries to be more competative, more multinational corporations
computers allowed for huge billion dollar corporations (1990s computer revolution) the internet
lots of wealth from new global eco
huge gap between rich and poor 1990s, incomes of poor families fell - lack of opportunity and education or training for new skills made it worse, people wanted low cost labor, not skilled labor
too much reliance on L/F, its unfair for some to make so much money and some not too

Growth in world commerce --> 1994 World Trade Organization to replace GATT, Gatt was successful in lowering tariffs and enlarging world trade. WTO could oversee agreements, enforce trade rules, and settle disputes. It grew a lot with many participant countries
Some argue the free trade agreements didn't pay attention to environmental and labor conditions or exploitation of child labor.
Some saw globalization simply as westernization or americanization - multinational corporations, lots of interdependency

International Conflict

1995 - 2000

After demise of USSR - international relations totally transformed
No more containment, US only super power everything is based on them now, their relation with the UN is important. Peace + security most pressing matteres
More conflicts within nations than between
conflicts about religion and ethnicity now, it was expected conflicts to be between religious based civilizations not nation states. (Russia against chechnya, Serbs/Croats vs Bosnia, Serb war against muslims)
terrorism
cultural differencesplay important role in diplomatic affairs, alliances, eco exhanges

United Nations: Security council, membership expands
Debate on defining human rights, want to expand it to eco rights. Western concepts of whats right vs non western concepts
UN peacekeeping involves rebuilding devasted countries
UN goals: advange human rights stop war, get equality, protect independence and socerignty , raise living standards
US leading role in international affiars
Failure for UN and US to act in BOsnia but act in Yugoslavia.

NATO, RUssia and New international cooperation:
Europeans action to strengthen independent military. Many east + central eurpe countries joijn NATO for protection
still feaar of nuclear war
By end of 1900s 187 nations sign non proliveration treaty
More nations w relations w China
Problems in Afghanistan and Iraq - america super involved - 9/11--> war on terror deal w terrorist threats --> US war in afghanistan w NATO backing, capture Osama bin laden, America feels the need to curb dictatorships. UN security council approved weapons to enter Iraq to look for Laden
2003 war in Iraq with British support, both try to over throw Hussein, insurgent forces in Iraq, violence hurt Iraq's oil industry and tech infrastructure, US made elections in Iraq and new constitution, new parliament,, unsettled tension in iraq but they did seem to want democracy
Decreasing support for war by nations and people, deaths,, bad US treatment of Iraq prisoners

Social Challenges

Approx. 1999 - Approx. 2001

World conflict based on nationalism, global eco competition, militant ethnic and cultural identities
Second half of 1900s - huge population growth in world (partly cause of medicine and improved health, declining infant mortality, more efficient food production and water, less deaths, more births) - population had doubled - then a peak in 1970 of growth rate, then small decline (kinda bad too cause overpopulaiton, new debate on carrying capacity of world)
- growth was cause of developing places like in Asia Africa Latin America, but by 1965 birth rate declines a bit like it already di din EUorpe + US
2000 smaller families, less children cause women are getting mroe jobs and edu, contraceptives and planning, not like the average 6 kids in 1970
Fertility rates decline i developed nations, opposite in developing nations
pressure of population issues on social welfare and eco advances

environmental issues
1950-2000 threat to world resources burning coal oil natural gas --> pollution, eroding ozone layer (realization we have to do something about this), global warming, industrial pollution --> acid rain, (lots of damage in China and old soviet bloc nations who supported cutting down tropical rainforests to support pop)
look at sustainable growht through renewable resources. COntrols for emission of factories, nations agree to protect endangered species, strict violations to regulations in some poooer and industrialized countries like China India Australia an US

The most pressing concerns wer not new: sovereighty of nations peace of all, economy health, technology worries
key social relationships gap of wealth is hard to over come