rise of commercial capitalism & mercantilism
economic endevours relating to NATION
Following the War of Spanish Succession, the landed gentry and merchant allies could govern as they saw fit. Thus began an economic revolution that primarily began in England (while the continent suffered from the French Revolution) prior to 1815 and afterwards spread to the continent.
between France and England
Council At Pisa
Council at Constance
The papacy loses control in France, because the French church asserted the supremacy of councils over the Church (though in other places the concilliar movement lost ground)
Henry VIII declared the King of England as also the head of religion and established the still Catholic new England National Church.
Increasingly protestant Netherlands were alienated by ‘foreigner’ Philip II of Spain on the throne. British (Elizabeth I) finally joined Netherlands cause and together defeated Spanish Armada Catolica, leaving Spain weekend economically and politically
worst mass execution of French Huguenots
Confirmed the ascendancy of Parliament over the king, economically translating to the ascendancy of the more well-to-do property-owning classes
a series of peace treaties
copiers of him called Mannerists
LEONARDO DA VINCI
dabbled in science but NOT considered scientific bc worked in isolation w/out sharing ideas.
Modern science developed on basis of communication
Dada movement developed in Switzerland after 1915 and was promoted by poet Tristan Tzara.
Rejected structures of traditional literature and questioned Western society after WWI --> passed onto more enduring ideas of Surrealism.
important historical figures and their acheivments
A book about wise and interesting tales about human nature, conveying the more "human" awareness that was to come in the Renaissance.
Originally starting out as bankers, the Medici family were a powerful ruling family in Florence whom because of their art and learning beneficiaries were able to help start the Italian Renaissance.
Extremely important invention that allowed the Protestant Reformation ideas to spread so rapidly and make individual study of the Bible possible.
1543 On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs - denounced ptolemaic conception of cosmos in favor of a mathematically simpler helio-centric view
only published after his death bc he was part of chuch
First of the Tudor Dynasty
Created the Star Council (without a jury) and passed laws against livery and maintenance (nobles could not have their own army) and led to the end of the War of Roses.
Erasmus denounced all worldly pretension and ambitions of the clergy, however he only denounced the bad parts of the Church and never attacked the principles. Erasmus achieved international fame and corresponded with Kings.
Skepticism: belief that no certain knowledge could be reached
Que sais-je? "What do I know? nothing"
Calvinism target institutes of Catholicism worldwide so that everyone could find meaning in his book. Calvin preached no transubstantiation, faith not good works important, clergy corrupt, and predestination.
Joined William of Orange and Netherlands against Spain and defeated the Catholic Armada signaling the decline of Spain.
continued off Kepler with more evidence for CP's theory + laws for motion on earth
first to use scientific method
continued to work after Tycho Brahe (found flaws in CP's theory) to find elliptical orbits
showed that facts and math worked together in deriving mathematical laws describing movements of planets
Father of modern science
Novum Organum = idea of inductive though from -> abstract (empiricism)
did not have much influence bc not with the times and didn't understand mathematics
attempted to make an international law based on natural law
Leviathan Absolute power was an expedient to promote the individual welfare--
not as a means to a totalitarian state
contract between govt. and people (influenced by civil war)
Mathematical application of science - invented geometry
Discourse on Method principle of systemic doubt "contigo ero sum" "I think therefore I am"
- customs of ones country should be accepted w/out ?'s + Cartesian Dualism
Two Treatises of Government - social contract between the people, in which people were inherently good (tabla rusa) and just needed govt. guidance
unalienable rights, life, liberty, property (if denied just to rebel)
Pantheism- combining deity with the universe and its phenomena
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy - laws for motion in general
by his death, the scientific precedents for the future were in full swing!
The magnitude of the world was shown, but with it the rational, order with which it functioned.
The Sun King
Ruler of the Austrian Monarchy during its rise. Issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713.
Spiritual leader of the Philosophic Radicals in England. He wrote to reform the English criminal and civil law, church, Parliament, and constitution.
between people -> people (good ppl could only be produced with an improved society)
believed in no church (reverence for bible)
son of Catherine the Great
Along with German Revolutionaries and Freidrich Engels, he branded the term "communism" to their type of socialism (synonymous)
One of the most constructive of the early socialist writings.
member of the Nazi party