AP Euro Timeline

Priyanka

Big Picture

The Renaissance

Approx. 1300 - Approx. 1600

The Black Death

1346 - 1353

Commercial Revolution

Approx. 1488 - Approx. 1600

rise of commercial capitalism & mercantilism
economic endevours relating to NATION

Scientific Revolution

1500 - 1700

Reformation

1517 - 1648

Inquisition

1542 - 1543

Counter Reformation

1545 - 1648

Enlightenment

1650 - 1804

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

Following the War of Spanish Succession, the landed gentry and merchant allies could govern as they saw fit. Thus began an economic revolution that primarily began in England (while the continent suffered from the French Revolution) prior to 1815 and afterwards spread to the continent.

French Revolution

1789

WWI

1914 - 1918

Russian Revolution

8 March 1917 - 8 November 1917

USSR

1922 - 1991

WWII

1939 - 1945

Cold War

1946 - 1991

Important

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

between France and England

Conciliar Movement

1409 - 1414

Council At Pisa
Council at Constance

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

1438

The papacy loses control in France, because the French church asserted the supremacy of councils over the Church (though in other places the concilliar movement lost ground)

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

Star Chamber

1475 - 1641

Concordat of Bologna

1516

Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses

1517

Act of Supremacy

November 1534

Henry VIII declared the King of England as also the head of religion and established the still Catholic new England National Church.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Peace of Ausburg

September 1555

Netherlands Revolt

1566

Increasingly protestant Netherlands were alienated by ‘foreigner’ Philip II of Spain on the throne. British (Elizabeth I) finally joined Netherlands cause and together defeated Spanish Armada Catolica, leaving Spain weekend economically and politically

St Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24, 1572

worst mass execution of French Huguenots

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu

1624 - 1642

Petition of Right

1628

Triennial Act

1641

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Test Act

1673

Glorious Revolution

1688

Confirmed the ascendancy of Parliament over the king, economically translating to the ascendancy of the more well-to-do property-owning classes

British Bill of Rights

1689

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Act of Settlement

1701

Pragmatic Sanction of 1713

1713

Treaty of Utrecht

April 1713

a series of peace treaties

War of Polish Succession

1733 - 1738

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle

1748

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

DIplomatic Revolution of 1756

1756

The Peace of Paris

1763

Napoleon

1769 - 1821

Pugachev's Rebellion

1773 - 1775

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

July 12, 1790

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Treaty of Campo Formio

October 17, 1797

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle

1818

Protocol of Troppau

1820

Congress of Verona

1822

New Poor Law of 1834

1834

Revolutions of 1848

1848

Russian Civil War

1918 - 1922

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

The Holocaust

1941 - 1945

Tehran Conference

November 28, 1943 - December 1, 1943

Yalta Conference

February 1945

Potsdam Conference

July 17, 1945 - August 2, 1945

Art

Humanism and Art

1460 - 1559

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

copiers of him called Mannerists

Da Vinci

1492 - 1519

LEONARDO DA VINCI
dabbled in science but NOT considered scientific bc worked in isolation w/out sharing ideas.
Modern science developed on basis of communication

Religious Art in the Baroque Period

1559 - 1715
  • El Greco
  • Rubens

Classicism in Art, Literature, Music

Approx. 1600 - Approx. 1700
  • Palladian Revival
  • Rococo Style

Romanticism

1800 - 1850

Dadaism

1916 - 1923

Dada movement developed in Switzerland after 1915 and was promoted by poet Tristan Tzara.
Rejected structures of traditional literature and questioned Western society after WWI --> passed onto more enduring ideas of Surrealism.

Lost Generation

1920 - 1930

People

important historical figures and their acheivments

"The Decameron" Boccaccio

1351

A book about wise and interesting tales about human nature, conveying the more "human" awareness that was to come in the Renaissance.

The Medici Family

1434 - 1737

Originally starting out as bankers, the Medici family were a powerful ruling family in Florence whom because of their art and learning beneficiaries were able to help start the Italian Renaissance.

Hapsburgs in Power

1452 - 1806

Guttenberg - Printing press

1455

Extremely important invention that allowed the Protestant Reformation ideas to spread so rapidly and make individual study of the Bible possible.

Copernicus

1473 - 1543

1543 On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs - denounced ptolemaic conception of cosmos in favor of a mathematically simpler helio-centric view
only published after his death bc he was part of chuch

"In Praise of Folly" Erasmus

1509

Erasmus denounced all worldly pretension and ambitions of the clergy, however he only denounced the bad parts of the Church and never attacked the principles. Erasmus achieved international fame and corresponded with Kings.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

First of the Tudor Dynasty
Created the Star Council (without a jury) and passed laws against livery and maintenance (nobles could not have their own army) and led to the end of the War of Roses.

"The Prince" Machiavelli

1513

"Utopia" Thomas More

1516

"Book of the Courtier" Castiglione

1528

Montaigne

1533 - 1592

Skepticism: belief that no certain knowledge could be reached
Que sais-je? "What do I know? nothing"

Jesuits

1534

"Institutes of the Christian Religion" Calvin

1536

JOHN CALVIN
Calvinism target institutes of Catholicism worldwide so that everyone could find meaning in his book. Calvin preached no transubstantiation, faith not good works important, clergy corrupt, and predestination.

Ivan the Terrible

1547 - 1584

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Joined William of Orange and Netherlands against Spain and defeated the Catholic Armada signaling the decline of Spain.

Galileo

1564 - 1642

continued off Kepler with more evidence for CP's theory + laws for motion on earth
first to use scientific method

Kepler

1571 - 1630

continued to work after Tycho Brahe (found flaws in CP's theory) to find elliptical orbits
showed that facts and math worked together in deriving mathematical laws describing movements of planets

Bacon

1580 - 1626

Father of modern science
Novum Organum = idea of inductive though from -> abstract (empiricism)
did not have much influence bc not with the times and didn't understand mathematics

Hugo Grotius

1583 - 1645

attempted to make an international law based on natural law

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Leviathan Absolute power was an expedient to promote the individual welfare--
not as a means to a totalitarian state
contract between govt. and people (influenced by civil war)

Descartes

1596 - 1650

RENE DESCARTES
Mathematical application of science - invented geometry
Discourse on Method principle of systemic doubt "contigo ero sum" "I think therefore I am"
- customs of ones country should be accepted w/out ?'s + Cartesian Dualism

Spinoza

1632 - 1677

BARUCH SPINOZA
Pantheism- combining deity with the universe and its phenomena

John Locke

1632 - 1704

Two Treatises of Government - social contract between the people, in which people were inherently good (tabla rusa) and just needed govt. guidance
unalienable rights, life, liberty, property (if denied just to rebel)

Newton

1642 - 1727

Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy - laws for motion in general
invented calculus
by his death, the scientific precedents for the future were in full swing!
The magnitude of the world was shown, but with it the rational, order with which it functioned.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

The Sun King

Cromwell

1649 - 1660

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Imbecile King

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Montesquieu

1689 - 1755
  • landed aristocrat (admired limited govt. of England + conservative bc liked MA)
  • did not believe in religion but thought church helpful The Spirit of the Laws government varied by climate and there was BOP in govt.

Voltaire

1694 - 1778
  • middle class, appealed to people and spread ideas of Spinoza (brought SR to Europe)
  • religious tolerance
  • ppl bad (necessity for authority one enlightened despot)

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Ruler of the Austrian Monarchy during its rise. Issued the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Fredrick the Great

1740 - 1786

Jeremy Bentham

1748 - 1832

Spiritual leader of the Philosophic Radicals in England. He wrote to reform the English criminal and civil law, church, Parliament, and constitution.

Diderot's "Encyclopedia"

1751

Robespierre

1758 - 1794

Rousseu's Social Contract (1761)

1761

between people -> people (good ppl could only be produced with an improved society)
believed in no church (reverence for bible)

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Industrial Inventions in England

1765 - 1769

The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

1776

Eli Whitney Invents the Cotton Gin

1793

Alexander I

1801 - 1825

son of Catherine the Great

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

Along with German Revolutionaries and Freidrich Engels, he branded the term "communism" to their type of socialism (synonymous)

Nicolas I

1826 - 1855

Organization of Work by Louis Blanc

1839

One of the most constructive of the early socialist writings.

Hitler

1920 - 1945

member of the Nazi party

Mussolini

1922 - 1943