Civil Rights Act

Events

Civil Rights Bill and Initial Act of 1957

September 9, 1957

Description of event: On September 9, 1957, President Eisenhower signed P.L. 85–315. The resulting law—the first significant measure to address African-American civil rights since 1875—established the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights for two years, created a civil rights division in the U.S. Justice Department, and authorized the U.S. Attorney General to seek federal court injunctions to protect the voting rights of African Americans.

Why did I include it? This Act made a huge change in voting rights and opened new doors for African Americans. It allowed them to gain voting rights and make new changes in the political world and take charge of their own lives.

The Vulnerable class intended for protection: Historically, this was specifically targeting the African American population.

How the specific even affected the civil rights movement: It helped begin a new chapter in voting rights for those who started off as property. It helps African Americans gain control of their own life by being able to vote.

Civil Rights Act

July 2, 1964

Description of event: Congress passed Public law 88-352(78 Stat.241) provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This included the Jim Crow Laws, segregation of race in schools, jobs and housing, establish rules/laws for public facilities and the implement of the Fair Employment Practices Commission.

Why did I include it? This Act forbade any discrimination on the basis of sex and race in hiring, firing and promotions. It also helps create the EEOC which is the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to implement the new law. Without this law employers, would be able to use a person(s) race, religion or national origin to discriminate against them and treat them unfairly.

The Vulnerable class intended for protection: Historically, African Americans but it was intended for all minorities.

How the specific even affected the civil rights movement: It helped to usher in new expectations of how minorities should be treated and the law was created to make that transition. What this did was force people who had the power to adhere by rules and not their own anymore. It helps African Americans and other minorities receive fair treatment that was granted in the U. S. Constitution, but the States ignored.

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965

April 9, 1965

Why did I include it? The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, signed by President Lyndon Johnson, was a civil rights law that provided education funding to states and attempted to ensure that every student had access to an education

The Vulnerable class intended for protection? Children and those in poverty-stricken communities across America

How the specific event affected the civil rights movement: This event sought equal and readily available education throughout the United States. The goal was to make education a priority and for every child, regardless of race, sex, or education, a quality educational experience and great education to succeed.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

August 6, 1965

Description of event: The murder of voting-right activists in Philadelphia and Mississippi on March 7th, 1965, were considered acts of violence and terrorism by state troopers on peaceful protesters. After the events, President Johnson began working on the Voting Rights Act, which after multiple amendments, eliminated the provision for voting examiners and created stronger federal anti-discrimination laws.

Why did I include it? This act prevented future discrimination acts against those that were not “capable” of submitting their vote. The 14th and 15th Amendment were being violated.

The Vulnerable class intended for protection: Minorities (Particularly, African Americans.)

How the specific event affected the civil rights movement: Federal anti-discrimination laws were not being effective in the enforcement of the 15th Amendment. During those times, the “qualifications” of an individual were measured through a test that determined if they were “capable” of voting. Poll taxes were also prohibited. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.

Homosexual and Transgender Law and Bills

January 14, 1975 - Present

Why did I include it? Civil rights have always been affiliated with equal protection of the law regardless of race, color, sex or national origin. The first federal gay rights bill is introduced to address discrimination based on sexual orientation. on January 14th, 1975. With Transgender issues, it is discrimination based on one's sexual orientation, the similar can be said about same sex marriages. This is a way of life, this is their personal sexual orientation, not just the color of their skin. They are experiencing violence among other mistreatment because of their sex, the same can be said during the civil rights movement.

The Vulnerable class intended for protection: The LGBT Community

How the specific event affected the civil rights movement: It effects the civil rights movement because it is a violation of civil liberties. This movement has grown to include several new bills that allow for unspecified gender bathrooms and in Washington DC, a neutral marking on a driver's license that shows no designation of one's sex.

Affordable Care Act

March 23, 2010 - Present

Why did I include it? Health Care has always been a sensitive subject and has been very expensive for those who cannot afford the care. CBO and JCT estimate that enacting the American Health Care Act would reduce federal deficits by $119 billion over the coming decade and increase the number of people who are uninsured by 23 million in 2026 relative to current law

The Vulnerable class intended for protection: This is intended for all U.S. Citizens that rely on Health Care.

How the specific event affected the civil rights movement: It effects the civil rights because it is a violation of civil liberties to have the right to health care. The budget spending for a new Patient and State Stability Fund, designed to reduce premiums, and a reduction in revenues from repealing penalties on employers who do not offer insurance and on people who do not purchase insurance. Without healthcare, everyone would be at great risk, even death!

Consideration of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)

June 5, 2012 - Present

Why did I include it? President Obama signed an executive order protecting unlawful immigrants that entered the country while they were children to protect them from deportation. This action brought about equality for children that otherwise may never have had adequate housing, education, or safety. Our country was founded on equality and all and this very action allowed for that continuance, regardless one's age or ethnicity. Currently, President Trump is trying to stop and decline the continuation of this program, allowing for deportation.

The Vulnerable class intended for protection: Individuals that entered the country as minor child

How the specific event affected the civil rights movement: Multiple groups support the continuation of DACA, due to the potential humanitarian disaster expected. The civil rights movement has the continued expectation that everyone should be equal, regardless of where they came from. The same came be said from those that crossed over from Ellis Island, who were made an important part of this very country too.

Every Student Succeeds Act:

December 10, 2015

Why did I include it? The Every Student Succeeds Act built off the No Child Left Behind that had large gaps in equal education. Student's were essentially being left behind by a cookie cutter standard within school districts across the United States.

The Vulnerable class intended for protection: Poor and minority students.

How the specific event affected the civil rights movement: Students that came from poor communities, in particular, minority communities, no longer had such stringent, one size fits all, standards. States must still test students in the same grades but will now have flexibility in how and when they administer those tests. For example, a single annual assessment can be broken down into a series of smaller tests. There's also an emphasis on finding different kinds of tests that more accurately measure what students are learning.