SALT

Events

Evidence people took salt from salt mountain

3500 BC

Evidence that people took salt from mountain around this time and tools around this time and tools were also found for scraping salt off.

Southern Poland springs

3500 BC

Southern Poland springs was the ancient site where about this time brine was gathered and boiled

Sichuan salt producing

3,000 BC

Sichuan has been producing salt as early as 3,000 BC.

Pyramid of Giza

2900 BC

Pyramid of Giza was made around this time

Egyptian trade

2800 BC

Egyptians begin to trade fish for Phoenician cedar glass and purple dye by a secret Phoenician formula

Xia Dynasty

2205 BC - 1766 BC

Yuu founded the Xia Dynasty

Preserved fish

2000 BC

Earliest record of preserved fish in China; found food remains in towns.

First travel across the Sihara

1000 BC

Earliest known travel across the the Sihara by oxen and then by horse-drawn chariots.

Iron

1,000 BC

Iron becomes known to China around 1,000 BC

Earliest Salt works found in Mexico

1000 BC

Earliest Salt works found in non-Mayan Mexico such as Oaxaca

Sea Port found by Phoenician

800 BC

Phoenician discovered the sea port, Sfax, that still prospers today.

Salt production

800 BC

Earliest record of of salt production in China

Hallsat Period

700 BC - 450 BC

Hallsat period became he archaeological name for a rich early iron age culture.

Roman's founded their own salt works

640 BC

Roman's founded their own salt works across the river in Ostia.

Earliest Record of Chinese salt making

600 BC

Earliest record of Chinese salt making from pottery fragments dated around this time.

Rome's salt prices

506 BC

The earliest record of Roman government interference in salt prices

Evidence of Salt production

450 BC

First evidence of iron being used in salt production by Yi Dun.

Destruction of Mozia salt works

397 BC

Romans destroy salt works in Mozia

Celts controlled Rome

278 BC

Celts controlled Rome for 40 years when during this time they invaded Turkey.

Salt Wells

252 BC

Li Bing ordered the drilling of the worlds first brine wells

Han Dynasty

207 BC

Han Dynasty ends the Qin Dyansty as well as its unpopular monopolies to demonstrate a better, wiser government.

Boiling Houses

200 BC

Boiling houses have iron pots heated by gas flames.

China discovers the Roman Empire

139 BC

China learns about the Roman Empire.

Salt and Iron monoppolies

81 BC

Zhoadi (a teenage emperor of China) calls in wise men over salt and iron monopolies.

Post-Classical History

200 - 600

Middle Ages

401 - 1400

New Salt Method

500

A new salt production method used by the Venetians is believed to be developed around this time.

Whaling

670

Earliest record of commercial whaling is a bill of sale to north France.

Venetians ended competitions

932

Venetians ended competition by destroying salt works at Camacchio.

Salt ponds made in Cerva

965

Ponds were built in Cerva

Post-Classical History

1200 - 1500

French Mediterranean port

1246

King Louis created the 1st French Mediterranean port in a walled city called Aigus Mortes (meaning dead waters).

Miners

1246

Miners began to mine for the rock salt that hardened at the source of the brine.

Venice contract with Mantua & Ferrara

1250

Venice made a contract with Mantua & Ferrara stipulated that these cities would not buy salt from anyone else.

King Louis salt revenues

1254

King Louis returns to France after traveling to Egypt, his salt works were still producing salt and state revenue

Polished leased mines

1278

Polish crown takes control of the mines but leased the operation to a succession of entrepreneurs.

Subsidy of salt

1281

Government paid merchants a subsidy on salt landed in Venice from other areas

France buys Pecais

1290

The french crown bought Pecais, site of the Roman works, and the 2 became the 3rd largest salt producers of the Mediterranean sea.

Salt Adminstration

1341

King Philip XIV established a salt administration in N. France that was labeled the pays de Grande Gabelle.

Count of Hollland's Campaign

1345

The count of Holland prepared for his campaign against fishermen by ordering the salting of 7,342 cod caught off the coast.

Pickling Herring

1350

Wilhelm Beuckelzon, a fisherman from Zealand, started practicing on pickling herring in brine.

City of salt

1352

Ibn Batuta reported visiting the city Taghaza which he said was made entirely of salt, including an elaborate mosque

Danes fight the Hanseatics

1360

Danes go to war against the Hanseatics over the control of herrings and lost.

Hanseatics control Bengen

1403

Hanseatics gain complete control of Bengen, Norway. It had achieved a monopoly on N. European production of herring and salt, but not without warfare and rebellion.

Count of Holland's threat

1424

The count of Holland threatened to prosecute those who cured herring that had been out of water more than 24 hours.

Taking over Naples

1443

Catalans takes over Naples and introduced their salted cod.

Ships load salt from Croisic

1452

200 Hanseatic ships stopped at Croisic to load Geurde salt for the Baltic.

Venice conquered Cerva

1473

Venice conquered Cerva and forcing their one time rival to agree to sell to no one else but them

Columbus Voyage

Oct 12 1492

Columbus goes to find a new route to reach India, starting a series of voyages for Spain. This opened trans-Atlantic trade

Salt Ships

1557

1,200 salt ships from other European parts came to Le Croisic.

Red Herring Discovered

1567

Red herring is discovered by Native East Anglian, Thomas Nash,

80 year struggle against Spain

1568

Dutch struggled 80 yrs against Spain, cutting them off from Spanish salt

James Town

1607

Salt works were established in James Town

Brine Pumps

1636

Pumps installed in Nantwich to raise the brine level.

Cheshire's forest

1650

Little was left of the forests of Cheshire

Dutch permitted salt works

1660

The Dutch allowed the colonist to build salt works on a small island; Coney Island

New Use for Salt on Criminals

1670

Salted bodies of criminals who committed suicide before trial to preserve them and displayed them publicaly,

Salt Rakers

1673

The arrival of Bermudian rakers began on salt cay was a regular event

Salt Pond Found

1675

Salt pond found on Bickley

Indian Salt

1699

Sugar was sometimes referred to as "Indian Salt"

Bed of solid rock

1707

John Jackson finds a bed of solid rock when he was looking for coal.

Epsom Salt

1715

Epsom salt was discovered to be easily made by applying sulphuric acid to the mother liquor.

Sauerkraut

1753

Sauerkraut made its debut off the continent due to an English doctor informing that it prevented scurvy.

Fisherman boats decline

1770 - 1888

Collioure had 800 fisherman boats which declined by 10.

Poland was split

1772

Poland was split between Austria, Prussia, and Russia.

British Blockade on Colonies

1775

British Blockade on colonies causing an immediate and serious salt shortage

Challenging the Neptunism theory

1775

William Boweles used the salt mountains of Cardona to challenge the Neptunism theory

Congressional Committee

1777

Congressional Committee appointed to find a way to supply salt to the U.S.

Maurice LeCorre

1784

Maurice LeCorre had died in prison & was salted for a trial, but due to an error, the corpse didn't get a trail. Instead, it was found salted and fermented in beer

Jaques report on minot salt

1784

Jaques report on minot salt explains that it have varied prices in other areas, this made France rich with opportunities for smugglers

Onondaga, New York

1787

Onondaga, New York began to produce salt

National Assembly

1790

The National Assembly called the salt tax "odious" and annulled all trials for violation of the gabelle & also freed those charged or convicted.

British tried to buy salt from Orissa

1790

British tried to buy salt from Orissa, but was turned down by the governor of Orissa as British was trying to remove competition.

Mother liquor

1792

Sodium carbonate, soda was made from mother liquor.

Post War

1793

During a post war which demanded salt

New York lease Brine springs

1797

New York began to lease for work the brine springs of Onondaga.

Heating and Sealing

1803

Appert asked Navy men to taste his broth, beef, and vegetables which were all preserved by the heating and sealing process.

Kanawha Salt Maker's New Mechanism

1807

Kanawha salt makers new mechanism to extract brine like the Chinese

New Mechanism of the Kanawha

1807

The new mechanism that the Kanawna gave a boom to the Kanawna Salt Industry.

Chlorine element

1810

Chlorine was proven as an element by Davy.

De Witt Clinton

1810

De Witt Clinton took part with the commission that reported that salt works were producing far below their capacity but were limited due to the poor road work.

Eerie Canal

1817 - 1825

The beginning construction of the Eerie canal and the completion of the Eerie canal.

Wieliczka Salt Mine

1830

Wieliczka Salt Mine Band started because the quality of the acoustics in the mine.

Drilled down 8500 cubic meters

1835

Drilled down 8500 cubic meters of gas

No slaves=No salt?

1836

People believed that if the slavery was abolished then the salt industry would fail to produce more. The general idea: salt will end without slaves.

Cape Cod salt companies

1837

Cape Cod had alone 658 salt companies producing more than 2600 tons per year. (Lost it due to the Eerie Canal)

28 pond Salt work

1840

A 28 pond salt works near Cape Ann, MA, supplemented the power from windmills on calm days by pumping brine.

Canals

1845

Canals are connected to Onondaga salt to the Wabash in Indiana.

Salt works for Lumber

1849

Salt works were being broken apart and sold for lumber as described when Henry David Thoreau visited the Cape.

Slaves in Kanawha

1850

3140 salves lived in Kanawha, most assigned to the salt works.

Largest Salt Producing S. States

1858

Virginia, Kentucky, Florida, and Texas were the principal salt states of the south.

Salt prices increase

1859

Something occurred that raised the price of salt again (salt was used to separate the silver ore and it used a lot of salt to do so).

Oil instead of salt

1859

Edwin Drake, after studying the drilling technique of salt producers, drilled 69.5 feet, much to everyone's surprise. But instead of salt, he got oil.

Largest Salt Consumer

1860

United States is the largest salt consumer.

Union General Jacob Cox

1861

Union general Jacob Cox takes over the valley and its saltworks

Confederates take back salt works

1862

Confederates take back salt works from the unions, using 5000 people, not even giving them a chance to destroy the salt works.

Vats for salt

1862

Vats expanded 6000 acres when it hired 3000 workers & produced more than 9 million bushels of salt.

King Fisher

1862

A union vessel called "King Fisher" approached a confederate salt works at Saint Joseph Bay, giving confederate workers 2 hours to leave

Salt under Avery Island

1867

C.A Goesman thoerized that salt was under Avery Island from brine springs ascending through older deposits of bedded salt

The effect of finding silver ore

1868

Nine years after the discovery of the Comstock lode, 18 salt companies were operating in south bay

Girls barred in salt works

1876

An inquiry demanded that girls under 18 must be barred from salt works.

Capita of salt Hungarians

1884

Study showed that Hungarians ate an average per capita 4 lbs of cured salted or smoked fat

Salt Union Limited

1887

London financiers raised money in order to purchase a company called Salt Union Limited

Vacuum Pan

1887

First vacuum pan salt process was put into operation in Silver Springs, NY.

Salt instead of coal

1899

Drilled a shaft a mile deep in order to find coal but only found salt

Double the caviar

1900 - 1915

The price of the caviar was then doubled.

Morton Brand Salt Popularity

1914

In a poll, it was shown that out of "4,000 housewives" 90% recognized Morton brand salt.

Reestablished salt administration

1915

Dane reestablished a centralized salt administration, causing tothe salt revenue to increase over the previous year a 100% (pg 372)

King Tut's tomb is discovered

1922

King Tut's tomb found well preserved and the most elaborate.

Salt Tax

1923

The government proposed of doubling the salt tax.

American company absorbs salt

1927

The salt works began to be absorbed by into a large american company that is called Leslie.

Rebellion for salt tax

1930

Rebellion due to the salt tax was growing near open in Orissa.

Hurricanes destroys all houses but 3

1945

A last powerful jurricanes destroys the wealthy salt traders' homes at Salt Clay, only leaving 3 that were "wealthy salt-trading families"\ who saved their salt in the "basement".

Gabelle abolished

1946

the gabelle was abolished in the newly liberated France

Hotel near springs

1960

the Israelis built a hotel along another spring to the south

Post Modern Age

1973 - 2017

Basque's Whaling Station

1976

Basque's whaling station ruins were found on the coast of Labrador (dated back to 1530).