Bacon's theory was simply the notion that before we must doubt everything before assuming its truth. His method was for scientists to manipulate nature in attempts to prove their hypotheses wrong. This theory played a huge part in future scientific endeavors and really helped push a new wave of the psychological revolution.
Dedicated to Queen Cristina of Sweden, and the last of Descartes published works, "Passion of the Soul" is a theory surrounding what he likes to call 'the passions'. The 'passions', or as we like to call them, emotions, were a cause of debate between natural philosophers for a VERY long time. Conflict due to these 'passions' had been controversal since the time of Plato. Descartes main purpose for this writing was to answer the questions of Princess Elisabeth of Bohemia. Throughout the book Descartes does and amazing job at illustrating the development of the perception of the cognitive mind in western society. Apparently Descrates needs to, "reconcile the influences of the passions on otherwise rational beings marks as clear point in the advancement of human self-estimation, paralleling the increasingly rational-based scientific method."
Locke's theory of 'Tabula Rasa', was essentially the idea that all of our knowledge is brought to us and retained by our sences. And that our minds at birth are, "complete, but receptive, blank slates upon which expirence imprints knowledge." His argument was, "that people aquire knowledge from the information about the objects in the world that our senses bring. People begin with simple ideas and then combine them into more complex ones." In his mind there was no intuition or innate conceptions. Usually society uses the idea of nature or nurture in the intrest of explaining the human mind, but i think its sae to say Locke took a somewhat of a different approach.
A scientific work published by Charles Darwin introducing the theories of natural selection, evolution, and new biological findings. Because of Darwin's status as a eminent scientist his wirtings were taken strongly into consideration both scientificaly and religiously. Within two decades the ideas Darwin expressed were heled mostyly as truth. And as time went on the findings expressed in his book became the center of today's modern evolutionary theory and continue to unify the fields of life sciences.
Famously called the "Farther of Expirmental Psychology", Wilhelm Wundnt founded the first expirmental psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. Because of this psychology was then marked as an independent field of study, because of the lab he was able to seperats psychology from other topics. Along with his many other acomplishments Wundnt also formed the first academic journal for psychological research, "Philosophische Studien", in order to publish Institute's research.
While Hall was lecturing philosophy and teaching in psychology and pedagogics at John Hopkins University he was luckly granted the space to open one of the first psychological laboratories in the United States. As he continued throughout his carreer Hall helped to establish Clark University and by 1893 was awarded 11 of the 14 doctorates in psychology granted in the United States. Along with that Hall also founded the first journal in the fiels of child and educational psychology, the "Pedagogical Seminary".
James' 1890 psychology books covers four main theories and methods. The first being the 'Stream of Conciousness', this being possibly his most famous metaphore. He compares the human mind to a flowing stream, and views conciounsess as completely continuous. His second method was 'Emotion'. James approched emotion as a consequence rather than a cause of our bodies expression. Next he sopke about the idea of 'Habit'. His theory here was that habits were constantly formed to achieve certain results because of a strong feeling of want or wish. The last method was the his concept of 'WIll'. To James, "effort and attention is thus the essential phenomenon of will. He is siad to wonder is it even exists.
The APA is largest orginazation of psychologists in America, with a current following of 117,500 members. Togather there are 54 divisions of the APA, broken down into supfields of psychology. Although their efforts are primarily scientific, the APA does express opinions concerning political topics. Such as abortion, human rights, IQ, homosexulity, and gender differences.
Developed by Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener, structuralism is basically a theory of concious development. It seeks to explore and analyze the adult mind in its simplest form and see how everything fits togather to create complex expirences and how they correlated to physical events.
In his 1913 lecture, later to be known as the "Behaviorist Manifesto", John Watson rejected introspection and the use of consciousness as a interpretive standerd. Along with his rejection Watson also encouraged other psychologists to adopt behavior as their unit of analysis. What he was really trying to preach was that psychology should be viewed as, "a purely objective expiremental branch of natural science." This, however, did not go over so well for Watson and resulted in the abrupt end of his career in 1920. But he didn't let that stop him! Watson continued to stress his beliefs for another decade until his final two cents was published in 1930.
Calkins became president of the APA in 1918, after years and years of advancing her psychological career beyond lengths never before thought possible for a woman. She graduated from Smith College in 1884 with a concentration in classics and philosophy. Three years later Calkins took a teaching job in the Greek department of Wellesly College there she was noticed by a memeber of the psychology department. He offered her a teaching possition on the stipulaton that she study psychology for a year. Calkins was extatic, but because of the strict regulation of most colleges it proved hard for her to aquire her graduate degree. But in 1890 Calkins began attending lectures taught by Josiah Royce in the Harvard Annex, he's actually the person who pushed Calkins to began attending regular classes at Harvard. It took a lot but after a few petitons and what i can only assume were some heated meeting, Calkins finally got in! Although she was not registered as a student she spent the next year studying under some truly amazing people and learning all she could about the field of psychology. Throughout her lifetime Calkins published numerious books and theories, and really has made a name for herslef. She is truly and insperation for young girls everywhere.
Sumner earned his doctoral degree in psychology under G. Stanly Hall at Clark University. Although most know him as the first African American man to earn a PhD, Sumner also played a crucial role in establishing the Psychology Department at Howard University. He joined the Howard faculty in 1928 and went on to teach and train many, many more African American psychologists throughout his years there. In 1930 Sumner was promoted to full professor and head of the psychology department that same year.
Concentrating her efforts in Animal Behavior and Motor Development, Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman ever to recieve a PhD in Psychology. Wasdhburn started college at Vassar College when she was only 16 years old. When she graduated fron Vassar she relized she wanted to continue with her education and take her studies to Columbia University, but unfortunatly women were not allowed into graduate programs, although she was permitted to sit in on classes as an observer. As her mind and reputation grew Washburn went on to attend Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell and was lucky enough to work with Expirmental Psychologist E.B. Titchener. She earned her master's in 1893, and one year later, she made history (or should i say HER-story) as the first woman to earn a PhD in Psychology. She went on to become a teacher and professor of psychology, later serving as an active member of the American Psychological Association (APA).