Bertke, Brown, Hof, Rowe, Slencsak, Zimmerer
Small village communities developed into large urban centers along the Indus River and its tributaries in modern-day Pakistan and northwest India. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are two cities of great importance.
Image: Map of Indus River Valley Civilization
The Indus people used a unique combination of hieroglyphics in their writings that have not yet been deciphered. Until these writings are fully understood, some important details of the civilization will remain a mystery.
During this phase the population grew to almost 5 million people. Cities were planned communities, constructed of baked bricks of uniform size, with well developed sanitary systems.
This phase marked the end of the Indus River Valley Civilization. Writings began to disappear, cities bricked over the advanced drainage systems and baths. Reasons for the decline might be: an earthquake changed the course of the river(s), over-use of land sources. or climate change.
Image: Silver coins from Iron Age
Image: Parvati, wife of Shiva, Hindu goddess.
Image: Brahman priest with his wife.
Image: Figure of Buddha
Image: Alexander the Great
Image: Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt created military expeditions which brought the eastern coast of the Mediterranean under Egyptian rule.
Image: Pottery from Xia Dynasty-tripod pitcher
Image: Bronze spearheads from the Shang Dynasty
Image: Bronze tiger on top of water buffalo-Zhou Dynasty
Image: Temple of Confucius
Sumer people built temples called Ziggurats to worship their gods.