Small village communities developed into large urban centers along the Indus River and its tributaries in modern-day Pakistan and northwest India. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are two cities of great importance.
Image: Map of Indus River Valley Civilization
The Indus people used a unique combination of hieroglyphics in their writings that have not yet been deciphered. Until these writings are fully understood, some important details of the civilization will remain a mystery.
Mature Harappan Period
2600 BC - 1900 BC
During this phase the population grew to almost 5 million people. Cities were planned communities, constructed of baked bricks of uniform size, with well developed sanitary systems.
Late Harappan Period
1900 BC - 1300 BC
This phase marked the end of the Indus River Valley Civilization. Writings began to disappear, cities bricked over the advanced drainage systems and baths. Reasons for the decline might be: an earthquake changed the course of the river(s), over-use of land sources. or climate change.
Iron Age Begins
Image: Silver coins from Iron Age
1500 BC - 500 BC
Image: Parvati, wife of Shiva, Hindu goddess.
Caste System Emerges-Brahman priests on top.
Image: Brahman priest with his wife.
Prince Siddhartha Gautama becomes the Buddha and Buddhism is founded.
Image: Figure of Buddha
Alexander the Great arrives in northern India
Image: Alexander the Great
Ancient Egypt RC
Early settlers in the Nile River Valley
Image: Ancient Egypt
Early Hieroglyphic Script Developed
Pyramids of Giza Built
Central government began to break down.
Height of Egyptian Power
Ancient Egypt created military expeditions which brought the eastern coast of the Mediterranean under Egyptian rule.
Alexander the Great conquered Egypt
Rosetta Stone Carved
Ancient China RC
People plant crops along the Huang He
Invention of making silk cloth.
Image: Pottery from Xia Dynasty-tripod pitcher
Shang Dynasty came into power
Image: Bronze spearheads from the Shang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty came into power
Image: Bronze tiger on top of water buffalo-Zhou Dynasty
Confucius was born.
Image: Temple of Confucius
The crossbow is first used in China
Mesopotamia River Civilization
Sumerians moved to Mesopotamia
Sumer-large and powerful cities were built.
Sumer people built temples called Ziggurats to worship their gods.
The development of communicating with symbols emerges.
The Sumerians start to use mathematics using base 60.
Babylonian King took power over Mesopotamia
Alexander the Great invades the land and conquers the Persian Empire