Founded first Russian state schools in 1775 (Gutek, 1995, p. 422).
Established outlines of an educational system consisting of parish schools, secondary schools, and universities (Gutek, 1995, p. 421).
Russian Emperor know for his "Nicholas System" used to stop the Growth of Russian liberalism (Gutek, 1995, p. 420).
Directed Nicholas's Secret Police that where used to scrutinize teachers (Gutek, 1995, p. 421).
Chief adviser to Alexander III and believed schools needed to be brought under greater supervision in order to purge anarchist teachers (Gutek, 1995, p. 432, 434).
Writer of the book War and Peace, and questioned the government’s emphasis on industrialization when most people where illiterate (Gutek, 1995, p. 432).
Minister of education under Nicholas I that did very little to progress education (Gutek, 1995, p. 421).
Son of Nicholas I, and the most tolerant of tsars in educational matters. He established zemstovs schools providing basic literacy to children in the villages and competed with the parish schools. He was assassinated by terrorists (Gutek, 1995, p. 423, 424, 428).
Marxist revolutionary that led the Bolshevik Revolution and became the first Communist leader of the new Soviet Union. He established co-ed working-class schools emphasizing practical and socially productive labor for all people (Gutek, 1995, p. 436).
Became Communist leader of the Soviet Union after Lenin and introduced his Five-Year Plan to industrialize the Soviet Union by using systematic teacher-directed education to instruct basic skills, science, and discipline, along with a firm foundation in the basic and applied sciences for technicians and engineers. He also asserted history into the school curriculum to support Russian nationalism in the youth (Gutek, 1995, p. 440).
Regressed back to the suppressive autocracy system used by his grandfather because of the murder of his father, Alexander II (Gutek, 1995, p. 433).
Weakest and last tsar that was forced to relinquish his position due to the revolt that occurred in response to "Bloody Sunday" (Gutek, 1995, p. 435).
Emperor Nicholas II gave a speech at the State Duma that included public education among the state’s basic priorities, requiring collaboration between the top rulers and “selected individuals from among the people” (Andreev, 2013, p. 5).
Orthodox priest, Father George Gapon, and his group of 500 peaceful demonstrators were gunned down, turning tsar supporters against Nicholas II (Gutek, 1995, p. 435).
The Ministry of Public Education sketched out a plan to convert autocracy education to universal education with in ten years (Andreev, 2013, p. 6).
The Bolsheviks led by Nikolai Lenin overthrew the provisional government that was established after Nicolas II to establish the first Communist dictatorship of Russia and the Soviet Union Government (Gutek, 1995, p. 435).
The Soviet economy became stagnant and leadership was lost its robustness among supporters under the rule of Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, and Konstantin Chernenko (Gutek, 1995, p. 448-449).
Soviet president that sought to reinvigorate the Soviet Union by introducing perestroika and glasnost and removing low quality standards, social passivity, and bureaucratization that afflicted schools (Gutek, 1995, p. 449).
The purpose was to create a strategy capable of turning education into an instrument for the country’s modernization (Andreev, 2013, p. 20).
Russia implemented the Unified State Exam for admissions to all universities to combat corruption (Denisova-Schmidt & Leontyeva, 2014, p. 22).