The Big Bang was the moment when there was a slight irregularity within the singularity holding all matter and space-time within a tiny space of infinite density broke out with all of creation.
10 ^ -35 seconds later
At this point, the universe is very hot (infinitely hot).
Space and Time come into being.
All the matter in the world exists in a tiny space.
Now begins a period of "inflation".
10 ^ -6 seconds later
The rate of expansion slows down, but still continues.
Gravity becomes distinct now.
Protons, Electrons, Neutrons, Quarks, and Neutrinos.
3 seconds later
The nuclei of basic elements start to form.
Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium
It is still too hot for the electrons to join
10,000 years later
Most of the energy in the universe is a form of radiation.
Light, X-rays, UV rays, Radio Waves
We can still see the aftermath in the CMB (Cosmic Wave Background)
300,000 years later
Neutral atoms begin to form as the universe cools enough for the electrons to know complete the actual atom.
This is the farthest point back in time that we can "see" because the density of the matter makes the photons transparent.
Gravity has know gathered together dense enough that pockets of gas are starting to form stars
The earliest galaxies are formed.
8,000,000,000 -9,000,000,000 years later
Our Sun is formed in the Milky Way galaxy
10,000,000,000 years later
Life begins to appear on Earth
Fate of the Universe
The fate of the Universe can end up in a Big Freeze, another Big Bang, or an exponentially rising universe that will become nothing but radiation.