As early as 4000 B.C., Egyptians used the following materials in order to design makeup:
Malachite, a copper ore, which provided the green eye makeup color so greatly favored at the time.
Kohl, used to draw thick, distinctive black lines, creating an almond shape to the eyes.
Red ocher, which was used as rouge or lip color.
Henna, which was widely used to stain the fingertips, toes and hair dye.
Once ingredients were gathered, time-consuming preparation was needed to make them ready to apply.
Minerals were ground into powder and then mixed with a carrier agent (often animal fat) in order to make it easy to apply and stay on the skin.
Green and black were the most widely used colors for the eyes. Different eras saw a change in how these colors were applied.
In the earliest times, green makeup was worn all over the eyelid, from the lid to the brow. It even extended downward to the base of the nose. In the middle era, green eye color was applied to the eyebrows and on the corners of the eyes. Later, black replaced the heavy use of green.
The Egyptians were very creative in designing makeup applicators. While people from all social standings used makeup, the poorer classes used applicators made of wood, while nobles had applicators and containers made of precious materials such as ivory.
Because their culture placed a great deal of emphasis on cleanliness, they developed ways to cleanse their skin and bodies. Chalk and oils were combined to create a cream that cleaned the skin.