History Culminating


Alliance System


The alliance system was one of the main causes of World War One. The alliance system was made up of two groups, the Central Powers (Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy (1914), and Turkey). Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance. In 1882, they signed a document that promised they would give each other military support in case of a war. The second group was the Allied powers (Russia, France, Great Britain, and the United States).

Assasination of Archduke Ferdinand

June 28, 1914

The trigger for the war was the July Crisis of 1914. This crisis triggered after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austria- Hungarian throne. His wife Sophia’s and his assassination occurred on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo capital of Austria-Hungary (now known as Bosnia) when they were shot dead by Gavrilo Princip. Princip was an ethnic Serb who had been supported by a nationalist organization in Serbia.

Canada enters War

August 4, 1914

Canada automatically enters First World War when Britain declares war on Germany because of allied forces.

Battle of Vimy Ridge

April 9, 1917 - April 12, 1917

One of the greatest battles in Canadian history. For the first time in World War I (WWI), all four Canadian divisions fought on the same battlefield. They were led by Sir Arthur, William Currie, who was the first Canadian-appointed commander of the Canadian Corps.

Halifax Harbour

December 6, 1917

French munitions ship "Mont Blanc" catches fire and explodes, destroying in Halifax Harbour. This explosion killed 2000 people.

Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on June 28, 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Persons Case


Supreme Court of Canada rules that women are not "persons" who can be elected to public office.

The Great Depression


It begn after the Stock Market Crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors.

New York Stock Market Crash


This event created a dominos effect that spread into Canada causing the Great Depression.

Adolf Hitler


Adolf Hitler is a rising politician channeled resentment into German Nationalism. After he becomes the Chancellor of Germany in 1933 things went downhill. His establishment of concentration camps to inter Jews and other groups he believed to be a threat to Aryan supremacy resulted in the death of more than 6 million people in the Holocaust. His attack on Poland in 1939 started World War II, and by 1941 Germany occupied much of Europe and North Africa. The Holocaust changed both Canadians and the Canadian government's attitudes towards human rights, minority groups, and displaced persons by prejudice towards people of the Jewish faith. All caused from the lead of Hitler through a form of violence, open and blatant racism that predated Confederation.

Canada enters World War 2


After remaining neutral for one week Canada joins the war; pro-war party in Quebec wins a provincial election.

Attack on Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a Military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II.

Newfoundland joins Canada


Newfoundland becomes Canada's tenth province on March 31st.

The Front de libération du Québec (FLQ)


The FLQ was a separatist and Marxist-Leninist paramilitary group in Quebec. Founded in the early 1960s, it was a militant part of the Quebec sovereignty movement.

Pierre Elliott Trudeau


Pierre Trudeau was a Canadian politician who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada, he played a huge role in developing Canadian identity. A charismatic and controversial figure, Trudeau was arguably Canada’s best-known politician, both at home and abroad. He was instrumental in negotiating Canada’s constitutional independence from the British Parliament and establishing a new Canadian Constitution with an entrenched Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Trudeau also brought in the Official Languages Act in 1969, making Canada officially bilingual. While he played an important role in defeating the Québec sovereignist movement of the 1970s and 1980s, his federalist stance, as well as his language and economic policies, alienated many in Canada, particularly in the western provinces.

October Crisis

October 5, 1970

The October crisis started in Montreal Quebec, when James Cross, the British trade commissioner, got kidnapped. The Front de liberation du Quebec (FLQ) also murdered Quebec Labour Minister Pierre Laporte. The main goal of this group was to achieve Quebec independence by resorting to terrorism, if necessary. The October Crisis is important because it affected Canada in many ways. For example, the Crisis was one of Canada's first real terrorist acts, it was also the first domestic use of the War Measures Act (which lead to improving the entire act), and finally, it was one of Pierre Trudeau's well-known accomplishment.

Charter of Rights and Freedoms


In French, the Charter of Right and Freedoms is called: La Charte Canadienne des droids et libertés. In Canada, it is referred to as the Charter. It is a bill of rights entrenched in the Constitution of Canada. It forms the first part of the Constitution Act in 1982. It states and outlines human rights.


June 21

History.com Staff. "Adolf Hitler." History.com. 2009. Accessed June 21, 2017. http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/adolf-hitler.

KaitlinD. "October Crisis." How Did the Crisis Benefit and Affect Canada? January 01, 1970. Accessed June 21, 2017. http://kaitlin-d-history-summative.blogspot.ca/2012/05/how-did-crisis-benefit-canada.html.

Moscovitch, Allan. "Welfare State." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Accessed June 21, 2017. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/welfare-state/.