The Development and Study of Physical Education

Greek Civilization

The embodiment of ancient Greek civilization is the idea that “physical well-being [is] necessary for mental well-being.”1

2500 BC - 250 BC

European Influence

The first modern fitness movement, which came in the form of gymnastics programs

1700 - 1850

Industrial Revolution

The beginning of studies done to measure the benefits of physical activity.

1760 - 1843

Dr. F.C. Smith

US Surgeon General’s Office reported an increasing incidence of degenerative diseases in those not employed in jobs involving manual labor.


Dr. Thomas K Cureton

Creation of fitness tests for cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, and flexibility.

1940 - 1950

Dr. Ken H. Cooper

“The Father of the Modern Fitness Movement.”(1) “


President John F. Kennedy

‘The Soft American.’ Article


American College of Sports Medicine

ACSM has established position stands on various exercise-related issues based on scientific research.”(1)

1954 - Present