1965 freedom rides.
July 1965 - March 1967: As a result of the Northern Territory Aboriginal Workers' Case the Commonwealth Arbitration Commission grants equal wages to Indigenous pastoral workers. The cattle industry reacts by phasing out Indigenous labour and driving Indigenous communities progressively off their properties which are their traditional lands. Indigenous Australians were excluded from the operation of the Northern Territory Cattle Station Worker's Award. Their rates of pay and conditions were regulated by an Ordinance. Under the award, the resulting rates of pay were well below those paid to non- Indigenous stockmen. These full-award wages flowed on to Aboriginal people employed in government settlements, forestry projects, the armed services and police force. In the same year the Commonwealth introduces a policy of integration, which 'allows' for the expression of Aboriginality. In NSW, in the same year, the Freedom Rides are organised by Charles Perkins, Rev. Ted Noffs and Jim Spigelian through the country areas of north-western NSW to draw public attention to the discriminatory practices of local governments and to end segregation.