timeline of spartan major events
Sparta gaining control of Lakonia majorly Impacted Spartan society. this can be seen by the writing of Tyrtaeus, Talbert and the bronze figurine of Hermes. These writing we see that Sparta gaining control of Lakonia was important to Spartan society with the Spartans time being freed up to focus on their military training. Source A demonstrates that Sparta gaining control of Lakonia freed the Spartans time by getting the Helots to work their fields so that they could focus on their military training. The reliability of Source B can be compromised because he is a modern historian has to rely on second hand information and it is his interpretation of the sources. Cartilage another contemporary historian has an opposing view which would give reason to believe it is compromised. Source C shows that the perioikoi were the craftsmen of Sparta. This demonstrates that Sparta gaining control of Lakonia impacted Spartan society by freeing the Spartans up from being craftsmen and focusing on their military training.
Source A ‘Asses exhausted under great loads: under painful necessity to bring their masters full half of the fruit their ploughed land’ Tyrtaeus.
Source B ‘We should expect helots to have been relatively ignorant simple people almost without education… helots know their place within severely limited horizons’ Talbert.
Source C The bronze figurine of Hermes
Lycurgus setting up the great Rhetra majorly impacted Spartan society this can be seen by the writings of Herodotus, Xenophon, Plutarch and Aristotle. These writing we see that Lycurgus setting up the great Rhetra was important to Spartan society with the introduction of the militaristic way of life, the Agoge and the government.Source D shows Lycurgus implementing the agoge education system that trained the Spartans in discipline, fitness and obedience. This shaped Spartan society by having them focus on their military training from an early age means they will be better fitter stronger and faster. Source E shows that lycurgus focused on the parts of Spartan life that are making their life easy and made them live tougher to maintain the training that they put in when they were younger. This shaped Spartan society by keeping the soldiers tough. Source F shows Lycurgus created a government and laws built around the militaristic way of life with having the best elements of the other Greek governments.Kingship, oligarchy and democracy. This shaped Spartan society by giving them a democratic say in government while still having a king. The reliability of Source G Aristotle wrote in the 4th century BCE so he is contemporary yet he his highly critical coming from a viewpoint of an Athenian. So the source is considered reliable yet their is a little bias with Aristotle putting Sparta in a bad light.
Source D ‘as boys reached the age of seven, Lycurgus took charge of them all himself and distributed them into troops.’ Plutarch
Source E ‘Lycurgus then noticed that the spartans just like the rest of the Greeks were living at home realising that this is responsible for taking things too easily, brought the common messes out into the open’. Xenophon
Source F ‘[Lycurgus] changed all the laws and… established military organizations… as well as the ephors and elders’. Herodotus
Source G ‘One might suppose that as long as they are resectable men and sufficiently trained in manly virtue [the elders] would benefit the state, but it should be doubted’. Aristotle
The battle of Hysiai minorly impacted spartan society this can be see by the writings of Herodotus. these writings show the importance of this event to spartan society with the proper burial of a king killed in battle and the significance it played on spartan society that all the political and social activities stopped for 10 days when a king is killed in battle.
Source H ‘ if a king is killed in war they make a statue of him and carry it to burial on a richly draped-bier. After a king's funeral there are no public meetings or elections for ten days, of which are spent in mourning. Herodotus
The spartan defeat in the Thermopylae war majorly impacted Spartan society. This can be seen through the writing of Toni Hurley. These writings show the importance of this event to spartan society with the pride Spartan society had towards the dead heroes of the battles this can be seen by how they describe them as having ‘exceptional discipline.
Source I ‘Another tactic that exemplifies the Spartans’ exceptional discipline is the feint used at Thermopylae’. Toni Hurley
The Helot revolt had a major impact on Spartan society this can be seen through the writings of Myron, plutarch and Thucydides. These writings show the importance of this event to spartan society with the fear of the helots and controlling them. Source K shows the method used to keep helots from revolting which shows how scared the Spartans were of the helots and when they revolted their were only a little over 1000 Spartiates and between 170000 and 225000 helots. Source M shows how the Government tried to control the helots by making laws for security against a helot revolt. The reliability of Source L, Plutarch wrote in the 1st century AD which was 500 years after the relevant period which would lead scholars and historians to question the reliability of Plutarch.
Source J ‘They assign to the helots every shameful task leading to disgrace. For they ordained that each one of them must wear a dog skin cap and wrap himself in skins… they allotted punishment to those controlling them.’ Myron
Source K ‘At night they made their way to roads and murdered any helot whom they caught’. Plutarch
Source L ‘Spartan policy with regard to the helots had always been based almost entirely on the idea of security’ Thucydides.