Middle Ages


Frankish King Clovis requires Catholicism

481 - 511

The Frankish king Clovis (481-511) married a Catholic Burgundian princess. After experiencing a battlefield conversion (like that of the Emperor Constantine), he required all his subjects to accept Catholicism rather than Arian Christianity.

Pope Gregory I

590 - 604

Pope Gregory I: Spiritual papacy and took over the governments role, fed the poor, sent missionaries to England, defended Rome from barbarians, promoted Benedictine monasticism

Roman Constantinople attacked by Arabs


Survived thanks to its strong defenses, including a secret weapon known as "Greek fire," which burned even on water and could devastate enemy forces that came near the walls.

Muslims influenced Romans


Muslims gave Romans: Astrolabes, paper, algebra, number of 0

Roman Constantinople attacked by the Fourth Christian Crusade


Philip IV of France (The Fair) focused on increasing revenue

1285 - 1314

Needed money to fight England and Flanders

Roman Constantinople attacked by Turks

1453 A.D

Provinces in the Balkans were harassed by Avars (a Turkic group from central Asia)