The Ancient Near East

Events

Mesopotamia

Sumer

3200 BC - 1900 BC

Earliest cities in the Tigris - Euphrates Valley (Mesopotamia)

Akkadians

2371 BCE - 2316 BCE

Semi-nomadic people
Led by King Sargon

King Sargon unified Mesopotamia

2371 BCE - 2316 BCE

Best known for: unifying Mesopotamia by conquering the Sumerian city-states and creating a vast empire.

Third Dynasty of Ur

2100 BCE

Resented Akkadian domination
Took over at time of Akkadian weakness
Chaos- no single dynasty
Lost identity when unity restored

Minoans

2000 BCE - 1200 BCE

Dominated maritime trade in Mediterranean, decorated palaces, wrote in syllabary symbols, volcanic and earthquake disaster, invaded by Myceans

➢ Dominated maritime trade in the eastern Mediterranean
➢ Their settlement on the Agean island of Thera was destroyed by a volcanic eruption
➢ They built magnificent palaces adorned with frescoes that depicted women leading ritual events and athletes jumping over bulls
➢ Used a syllabary-their written symbols represented syllables rather than individual letters. Minoan writing is known as "Linear Script A" and has never been deciphered; another Minoan script, known as "Linear B," has been identified as an early form of Greek.
➢ Their civilization on the isle of Crete was eventually invaded by the Myceans

Amorites - Old Babylonian Dynasty

1900 BCE - 1600 BCE

Unified Mesopotamia
King Hammurabi

King Hammurabi

1792 BCE - 1750 BCE

-Claimed to be a representative of the Gods
Hammurabi's Code: collection of old and new laws with punishments for its violators --- about family, ownership of land and commercial transactions
Goal: Create hierarchical society: King at top, then warrior and aristocracy and priesthood, then freemen, and slaves at bottom

Egypt

Pharaoh Akhenaton

1375 B.C.E. - 1358 B.C.E.

Spread an early form of Monotheism through Egypt

Hittites, Kassites and Hurrians

Overthrew the Old Babylonian Dynasty

1600 BCE

Kassites

1600 BCE - 1301 BC

Hurrians

1500 BCE - 1400 BCE

Sea Peoples

Minoans

Mycenaeans

Phoenicians

Assyrians

Neo- Babylonians

Perains

Hebrews