"the omens did not look good" -DR (after Wilmot proviso)
"we are on the very verge of bloodshed in the capital"
Speech from John C. Calhoun of SC -> "Calhoun believed that this was, in essence, a matter of numbers"
-> Northern population had grown much more than south - North now had dominance in every part of union except for Senate
-> if West was barred of slavery, North would dominate everywhere
(note how he defines the South in terms of slavery)
accused the north of "many agressions" over slavery - accusd north of aiming to abolish slavery + threatened secession if they tried
"the impact of his speech was immense. It sounded like the obituary of the Union"-DR
=> Calhoun died within the month
3 days later, Daniel Webster's speech
said he wanted to speak, not as a northerner, but "as an American"
=> said no need for Congress to legislate about far west bc it was excluded from there by laws of nature
to appease south, said that in constitution north must return property (runaways salves)
"Webster considered himself the voice of reasonable compromise, but to many New Englanders, his was the voice of betrayal"-DR
4 days later William H Seward "spoke out for the Northern radicals"-DR
his maiden speech in the senate
"his words had far more impact when read rather than heard" -> read across the country
read bc his words were "utterly intransigent"-DR
California should be welcomed as free state, condemned a fugitive slavelaw
derided Seward saying there was no natural limit to slavery "sir, there is no climate uncongenial to slavery... slave labor is cheaper than free labor"
said "there is a higher law than the Constitution" over slavery
"Seward's appeal to a Higher Law ran alarm bells throughout the South"-DR