Civil Rights


Massive resistance of White Citizens councils


A policy declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr., to unite other white politicians and leaders in Virginia in a campaign of new state laws and policies to prevent public school desegregation after the Brown V. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka


Was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.

Montgomery bus boycott


It was a civil rights protect designed to use the African-American community's economic power to end racial segregation on Montgomery city buses after Rosa Parks' arrest for refusing to relinquish her seat to a white man.

Rosa Parks's bus ride


After a hard day of work she took the bus home and she sat in the white section and the bus driver James Blake ordered Parks the move, but she didn't and she got arrested and fined $10.

The "Little Rock Nine" students enter a white public school


The Little Rock Nine was a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, which was when the students were initially prevented from entering.

The Sit-In Movement


The nonviolent measures employed by Martin Luther King Jr. helped African-American activists win supporters across the country and throughout the world.

Freedom Riders


Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court.

March on Washington


The demonstrators took part in the March on Washington for jobs and freedom in the nation's capital. The march was successful in pressuring the administration of John F. Kennedy to initiate a strong federal Civil Rights Bill in Congress.

Birmingham Campaign


The Birmingham campaign was a model of nonviolent direct action protest and, through the media, drew the world's attention to the racial segregation in the South.

Voting Rights Act of 1965


Is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting. It was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson during the height of the American Civil Rights Movement and Congress later amended the Act five times to expand its protections.