(Estimated Date) Caused by the now truly global world, this trading cycle took place between the Americas, Europe, and Africa. Exports included: crops such as potatoes, maize, sugar, and wheat and diseases such as syphilis and influenza. The positive effects of this exchange were mainly found in Europe, as the population's diet increased in nutritional value and diversity, causing a longer life expectancy. The negative effects were largely found in the Americas and Africa, as Native Americans were decimated due to the pathogens they were susceptible to, brought by the European travelers. A great deal of slaves also died due to the living conditions of the ships they were transported in.