APWH KC 4.1: Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange


Zheng He Voyages

1405 - 1430

Muslim admiral Zheng He and his 28,000 troops were sent by Yongle, the Ming emperor at the time, to intimidate empires on the Indian Ocean and others, earning prestige and new trading markets for the Chinese government.

Portuguese School of Navigation


Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal founded a navigation school; this school increased people's interest in circumnavigating the world (such as Ferdinand Magellan) and created trading posts, globalizing communication and exchange.

The 'Discovery' of the Americas

August 3 1492 - October 12 1492

Christopher Columbus, on a mission funded by Spanish monarchs King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to find a quicker maritime route to India, traveled westward instead of southward with his three ships: the Niña, Pinta, and Santa Maria. His landing in the Bahamas caused the interconnection of the Eastern and Western hemispheres.

Columbian Exchange


(Estimated Date) Caused by the now truly global world, this trading cycle took place between the Americas, Europe, and Africa. Exports included: crops such as potatoes, maize, sugar, and wheat and diseases such as syphilis and influenza. The positive effects of this exchange were mainly found in Europe, as the population's diet increased in nutritional value and diversity, causing a longer life expectancy. The negative effects were largely found in the Americas and Africa, as Native Americans were decimated due to the pathogens they were susceptible to, brought by the European travelers. A great deal of slaves also died due to the living conditions of the ships they were transported in.

First Circumnavigation of the World

1520 - 1522

Organized by Ferdinand Magellan in 1520, the Spanish funded expedition to the East Indies resulted in the first successful circumnavigation of the globe. During the end of his worldwide voyage, he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines in 1521, forcing Juan Sebastián Elcano to complete it without his leader.

Nanban Trade

1543 - 1614

Portuguese and other European merchants and missionaries traveled to Japan to convert citizens to the Christian faith, as well as make profit and benefit the economy. Missionaries and all acts of Catholicism were eventually outlawed by the Japanese government in the 1600s.