Originally Western region of Roman Empire. Becomes its own empire after the collapse of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 5th century. Its Capital was the great city of Constantinople. Falls to the Ottoman Empire in 1453
End of Western Roman Empire. The ousting of the last Roman Emperor in 476 is seen as the start of the Middle Ages.
West Saxons defeat Britons, driving them West into Devon and Cornwall. Leaves most of England in Saxon control.
At the time of his death all of Arabia is Muslim
Muslims conquer Persia
Franks under Charles Martel defeat Moors and stop their advancement into south west Europe
Muslim Caliphate that ruled most of Arabia, North Africa and Asia Minor.
Height of Viking rule and influence in Europe
Vikings raid Christian monestary on Lindisfarne in Northern England. Start of Viking raids.
Kingdom of Wessex decisively beats Kingdom of Mercia, establishing their dominance of Southern England
Vikings settle in Normandy, France. Would come to be known as Normans.
Anglo-Saxon nations of Wessex, Sussex, Mercia, Kent, East Anglia and Northumbria united under one ruler creating Kingdom of England.
Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches break communion. The Churches have remained split ever since.
William, Duke of Normandy defeats Anglo-Saxon King Harold at the Battle of Hastings, and becomes King of England.
Norwegian King Harold Hardrada attempts to take English throne from Harold Godwinson. Despite bringing a massive army from Scandinavia he is defeated and killed by Harold's army at Stamford Bridge near York. Harold's ability to march his army over 300km north in only four days allows him to surprise and annihilate a formidable Viking army. Only 24 of the 300 Viking ships where needed to return the survivors to Norway. This battle is seen by many historians as the end of the age of the Vikings.
William, Duke of Normandy defeats the English King Harold. It took the entire day to defeat the Anglo-Saxon army, which was exhausted following a 300 km march south from the Battle of Stamford Bridge which had taken place just three days before the Normans had landed. Harold famously killed by an arrow in the eye as depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry.
Commissioned by William the Conqueror the Domesday Book was a incredibly detailed survey of medieval England.
The Pope sends an army of Christian's from across Europe to retake the Holy Land form the Muslims.
Civil war between Henry I's daughter Matilda, and his nephew Stephen. Stephen claims and holds onto the throne, but Matilda is able to ensure that her son Henry succeeds Stephen.
Neither side gained a decisive advantage.
Partly successful but failed to capture Jerusalem.
Ended up embroiled in a conflict with the Byzantine empire on the way to the holy land which they never reached. Resulted in the Crusaders sacking Constantinople, which had serious long term repercussions for the Byzantine empire.
Created by Genghis Khan, it quickly covers almost all of central Asia and reaches Eastern Europe.
English Baron's force King John to sign a charter that limits some of his power over them and the church. Although it was annulled by the Pope, similar charters would become part of English law later in the century.
Last major Crusade. Unsuccessful.
After years of struggle against English rule the Scots eventually prevail. William Wallace and Robert the Bruce become national heroes.
Scots under William Wallace win a major victory against the English.
Empire that began in Turkey and would gradually spread across much of the Middle East.
Scots under Robert the Bruce, decisively defeat English army.
A conflict for the French throne fought between various French and English Kings and their allies. French eventually prevailed.
English Longbowman destroy French army.
The plague arrives in Europe and kills 30-60% of Europe's population.
Small English army under Henry V defeat a much larger French army. The death and capture of large numbers of the French nobility cripples France. Following the battle Henry becomes heir to French throne, but he dies before he can succeed.
End of Byzantine Empire.
War between to rival branches of the royal family for the English throne. Both sides have periods of ascendancy but the Lancaster's eventually defeat the York's.
King Richard III is killed when his army is defeated by Henry Tudor. Henry seizes control of the English throne and brings to an end the Wars of the Roses.
Consolidated Mercian control of much of Anglo-Saxon England.
King of Wessex, Alfred successfully defended his kingdom from the Vikings. By his death he was the most dominate ruler in England, and had laid the grounds from the formation of an united English monarchy. His grandson would become the first king of England.
Danish Canute becomes King of England. Danes rule for the next 26 years. Famous for trying to turn back the tide.
Anglo-Saxon King of England who's death led to a fight for the English throne between Harold Godwinson and William, Duke of Normandy.
Son of a powerful Anglo-Saxon lord he claimed the throne following the death of Edward the confessor. However it soon became apparent that several other European rulers had desires for the crown, and died in battle fighting one of these William, Duke of Normandy.
First Norman King of England. Presided over major changes political and social changes as Anglo-Saxon England became Norman England.
Son of William I who died in a suspicious hunting accident. Succeeded by his brother.
Fought numerous wars against his brother Robert, Duke of Normandy.
Reign marked by the Anarchy, a civil war fought against his cousin Matilda. Her son Henry succeeded him.
One of medieval Europe's most influential Kings. Marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine gave him an empire stretching from the Scottish border in the North, to Spain in the South. Ruled over almost half of modern day France.
Known to most as Richard the Lionheart, he and his brother John wrestled control of the crown from his father Henry II. Spent very little of his life in England, as he participated in numerous military campaigns and crusades. His capture in 1192 and ransom practically bankrupted England. Died in rather bizarre circumstances while laying siege to a minor castle in France.
The fifth son of Henry II, he inherited the throne following the deaths of all his elder brothers. Historically regarded as one of England's worst kings, he lost almost all of his fathers empire and infuriated the English Barons with his fiscal mismanagement. They forced him to sign the famed Magna Carta in 1215, and he died of dysentery while fleeing a French army one year later.
One of England's longest reign monarchs, he gradually lost the support of the English Barons following numerous disastrous foreign campaigns. Imprisoned by them in 1264 only to be freed by his son Edward.
Known as Longshanks, Edward was a fearsome warrior king who conqueror Wales and large parts of Scotland during his reign. He also oversaw numerous reforms to England's legal system and the creation of a permanent parliament.
Failed to follow up his fathers successes, and was overthrown by Nobles led by his wife Isabella. Had a very close relationship with noble Piers Galveston (It seems highly likely Edward was gay), who he gave substantial power and influence to. This favoritism angered other members of the court who eventually deposed him. He was murdered in captivity and succeeded by his son.
Became King aged 14 and went on to be one of the longest serving English monarchs. His heir apparent Edward the Black Prince died before he did, which would lead to a succession crisis and eventual conflict between his grandchildren's families.
Inherited the throne at the age of King at the age of 10, and became a deeply unpopular King who was eventually overthrown and died in captivity.
His father was Edward III fourth son, and the failures of his cousin Richard II t gave him the crown. First English King from the Lancaster Branch of the Plantagenets. Died from illness.
Famously the victor at Agincourt, Henry succeeded his father but died suddenly aged 36.
Son of Henry V, presided over defeat to France in the Hundred Years War. Had numerous mental breakdowns which opened the door for rivals to claim the throne. The resulting War of the Roses saw Henry lose the throne, only to regain it briefly before losing it for good in 1471. Died (probably murdered) in the Tower of London in 1471.
Son of Richard Duke of York, and a member of the house of York he won the throne in 1461 only to lose it 9 years later. He later won it back, seemly ending the war, but his sudden death and lack of adult heirs resulted in the conflict flaring up again.
Young son of Edward IV, he inherited the throne on the sudden death of his father. However both he and his younger brother Richard disappeared from the Tower of London, most likely murdered. Who killed the young princes in the tower remains a mystery but their uncle Richard has long been the main suspect.
Claimed the throne following the suspicious disappearance of this two nephews. Almost immediately found himself fighting for his crown against Henry Tudor, who he lost it to at the Battle of Bosworth Field. His body was recently discovered under a car park in Leicester, and it confirmed that he had 'the hunchback' that Shakespeare referenced in his history plays.
Had quiet a distant claim to the throne as a decedent of Edward III. But he ultimately won the crown at Bosworth and restored stability to England. First of the Tudor monarchs and father of Henry VIII.
Instigated the first large scale mission from Rome to convert pagans.
Charles the Great, King of the Franks. United much of Europe and crowned the first Holy Roman Emperor in 800 AD.
Kenneth MacAlpin, King of the Picts who became King of the Scots in 843. His decedents would become monarchs of Scotland.
King of Germany, becomes first Holy Roman Emperor in 40 years in 962
One of the great Holy Roman Emperors.
Sultan of Egypt and Syria and the major opponent of the Crusader states.
Great Khan (ruler) or the Mongols. Created a large empire through several successful military campaigns.
Scottish nobleman who rallied and led successful resistance to English rule. Won a famous victory against the English at Stirling Bridge before being captured and brutally executed 8 years later.
A French commoner who helped rally French resistance against the English during the Hundred Years War. She was captured and burned at the stake.