The first modern civilization to be created. People began settling in one place and many farming advances were created.
The first Pharaoh of Egypt, Menes united Egypt. He was the first to establish a dynasty and track their lineage.
Egypt was centered around the Nile river, allowing an advancement of agriculture and farming. The pyramids, one of the most famous tourist attractions in Egypt, were built in this time. Egypt was also very powerful and held a massive trading system.
Lead to agriculture becoming easier and more efficient.
They are known for farming cotton. Indus was the first civilization to use standardized brick sizes, like today. Everyday homes also had sanitation.
This was along the Yellow River. They developed a system of writing, and their religion was combines animism and ancestor worship.
Literature and scientific advances were very important China. They began to observe planetary movements and established how long a year is.
Hebrews left the city of Ur with their leader Abraham and settles in Amorites. One of the first people to believe in a monotheistic religion.
This was the most powerful time period in Egypt. Egypt expanded the Empire taking over Nubia, Hittites, the Mediterranean coast, and lands near the east.
Hebrews were used as slaves for Pharaohs.
Were the only ancient people to sail the sea rather than hug the coastlines. They also invented the alphabet, like we use today instead of symbols, making it easier to communicate.
When Moses led them out of Egypt they moved to Canaan and created their own kingdom. Some kings included, Saul, David, Solomon. Jerusalem becomes their capital city.
The first written records of the Old Testament.
Ancient Greece had many different important periods including, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic.
Civilizations of the Mediterranean world.
Established the Greek alphabet we use today. Literature and poetry were very important, and Homer wrote many influential works we still read today. Used myths and gods to explain natural happenings in the world. This is when Zeus and many other gods were created. Towards the end of this period rational reasoning began to appear. Athens allowed arts and education to flourish, white Spartan allowed military to become important.
Siddhartha was born and founded Buddhism.
He worked in a court for many years, thus forming most of his political beliefs from first hand knowledge. He was the first ethics teacher, teaching his disciples to behave based on example rather than rules.
Representatives for the people began governing. Prized virtues were frugality, bravery and being a good soldier. Simplicity of living and saving resources. The Stoic ideals from Hellenistic Greece carried over into the prized virtues of the Roman Republic
This time proves Greece to become more intellectual. Philosophers began to share their new ideas and rational thinking became important.
Battles between Greek-city states and Persian Empire.
Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League against Athens
Alexander fought back the invading Persians. He then conquered Persia, Egypt, the Indus River Valley, and the rest of Greece
Greeks find they are not the center of the world, and their are other nations. Greek city-states become part of a kingdom. Greek men become subjects instead of citizens.
Between Rome and Carthage.
After the fall of the Han, many invaders entered China, eventually adopting Chinese customs but keeping the area unstable until the late 500’s
Proposes land reform, gives wheat to the hungry, builds racetracks, institutes gladiators, and proposes that he be re-elected. He is then murdered.
He was the dictator of Rome, and the head of his family.
Went to Hispania. Elected aedile (manage public buildings, organize festivals)
Pompey flees the city, which surrenders immediately to Caesar. Caesar takes control of Rome and begins to chase Pompey and the other rebellious Senators
Appointed dictator of Rome again. Goes to Middle East to put down a rebellion .Also ends an uprising against Rome in Africa. Receives the Queen of Egypt as an extended houseguest
appointed dictator, elected consulate, resigned dictatorship.
onsul. Made his great-nephew Octavian his heir, with Brutus next. Established a 365 day year, with an extra day every 4 years.
Mark Antony, one of his loyal commanders, tried to warn him of a plot, but the crowds kept them apart. A group of Senators crowded Caesar and gave him a petition, tugged on his tunic. One Senator, Casca lunged at his neck with a knife. He was then stabbed repetitively and died.
In 31 BC at the Battle of Actium, Mark Antony kills himself and Cleopatra is captured.
Becomes first Roman Emperor.
This was a period of huge population growth and massive trading. During Pax Romana, the Roman Empire covered over 2 million square miles. Trademarks of the era included a uniform law code, clear lines of authority, citizenship for all free men, and state financed education to ensure literate citizens
Roman citizen had a vision and began to preach. Paul of Tarsus transforms Christianity from a Jewish sect to a religion open to anyone
He spent much of his time fighting to end rebellions early in his reign. By 299 Diocletian had established peace in the empire. He and his co-emperor took part in a ceremony of sacrifice and divination but the entrails couldn’t be read
Christians were blamed and all those in the royal house and army had to make sacrifices to purify the empire
He issued an “Edict against Christians” Burned scripture, tore down churches, forbade assembly of Christians
He fell ill and continued to get worse. He was the first ruler to adict.
Ending persecution of Christians and returning their property
North Africa between sects of Christianity, using a Christian army to enforce his ruling
First council where all church leaders came together. Decided when to have Easter, decided the idea of the Trinity. Issued the Nicene Creed (“We believe in one God..”)
Byzantium was rebuilt and renamed Constantinople
Made Christianity (as defined by the Nicene Creed) the official (and only legal) religion in the Empire.
The Wall was improved and reinforced in the late 1400’s to keep out the Mongols
Visigoths (Germanic tribe) with the fall of the city of Rome
He became famous for his holiness and attracted many followers. Establishes Benedict Rule.
Born to a poor clan in a ruling tribe in the Arabian city of Mecca. When he was about 40 years old the angel Jibreel visited him and told him that he was a prophet of Allah.
Sui managed to reunite China and build the Grand Canal
A great admirer of China, Shotoku imported scholars who taught Confucianism to Japan.
300 years of Tang rule China experienced a golden age. People from many parts of the world lived peacefully in China. The capital of Xi’an became a cultural center. The Tang made China the wealthiest and most powerful country in the world.
Muhammad moved back to Mecca, destroyed the idols in the Kaaba, and rededicated it to the worship of Allah
Charlemagne was a warrior, devout Christian, able administrator and great advocate of learning
They discussed the Controversy. The council decided it was heresy to not allow icons
Heian became a great center of culture and learning
Charlemagne was in Rome, worshipping at St. Peter’s Basilica. When he knelt to pray, the pope put a crown on his head and named him “Emperor of the Romans”
ended a 3 year civil war and divided the empire
Otto the Great worked to make Germany as large and powerful as France
Paper money was first used under Kublai.
thought that the church was part of his imperial power.
West – Roman Catholic Church, Pope is the head, allows icons
East – Eastern Orthodox Church, patriarch of Constantinople is head, did not allow icons. The churches are still separate today
When Henry arrived, the Pope made him wait for 3 days out in the cold. Henry then apologized and begged for mercy. Gregory forgave him and Henry went back to fight his nobles
navigators learned how to magnetize needles, by the 1300’s they had begun to make compasses with marked directions
Tall spires, flying buttresses, arches
Charlemagne’s wars against the Moors
The main art form of the Middle Ages was church architecture
The Concordat of Worms ended the controversy, allowed the emperor to give fiefs to bishops, but only the pope could name the bishops
Louis VII of France and Conrad III of German
Minamoto clan won, and because he had a very powerful army, and because the emperor was still busy in Heian, the leader of the Minamoto clan was the most powerful man in Japan
He attempted to overtake 4 independent cities in Northern Italy because they were wealthy trade centers. The 4 cities joined together to form the Lombard League and fight against Frederick
His name meant “Universal Ruler." Fiercest leader of the Mongols
He was the most powerful pope.
He was forced to sign the Magna Carta
Kublai Khan led the Mongols to conquer the rest of China, Tibet, part of Southeast Asia
Batu plundered the cities, either killing or enslaving the inhabitants.Mongols controlled Russia for the next 200 years.
Marco Polo traveled from Venice to the court of Kublai Khan. He became a special representative of Kublai. He wrote The Travels of Marco Polo describing the court of the Khan
the ruler of a small state in Switzerland was elected emperor
The next 6 popes were French and lived in Avignon. The years that the popes lived in Avignon are called the Babylonian Captivity
King Edward III of England owned land in France, making him a vassal to the French king
The French assembly chose Philip VI, Count of Flanders but King Edward claimed the throne for his own, bringing his army across the Channel.Hundred Years’ War
The Plague began in Asia and spread along the trade routes to Europe. One of the ways it spread was through fleas and rats
The Ming made their official religion Confucianism
The Ming divided people into 4 classes
Scholar-gentry, Farmers, Artisans, Merchants. The Ming did not want to be invaded from the north again
Chinese navigated their ships using a compass.
To settle their disputes, the Pope issued an edict which drew an imaginary line through the Atlantic Ocean.
removed the Italian and French popes, a third abdicated and a new pope was elected
Joan convinced a garrison commander to allow her an escort to visit the Dauphin’s court in Chinon. To remain safe, she wore men’s clothing while traveling. Joan of Arc impressed the Dauphin’s court and was allowed to travel with the relief army to Orléans. Supporters equipped her with a horse, white armor, shield, sword, banner and entourage. Because she was inspired by visions of saints, the Dauphin had her examined by the church to make sure she wasn’t a witch or a heretic
The period between the late 1400’s and the 1700’s when Europeans made major economic changes
e House of York challenged the House of Lancaster for the throne of England
After that summer, no one saw them again – alive or dead.
To forestall future trouble with the House of York, Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward, sister of the Princes in the Tower
sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and found the Indian Ocean
taked British claims to Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New England
Spain was the most powerful country because of their continual exploration of and expansion into the New World
Europe wanted to colonize places that had a lot of gold, silver and raw materials that their home country didn’t have
That way they didn’t have to buy those raw materials
Most colonial powers forbade the selling of raw materials to other countries
many new religious groups appeared in Germany and Switzerland
There were 3 goals of the Counter Reformation
Returning to spiritual matters
Making doctrines more clear
Which allowed each German ruler to choose the religion for his state. His subjects either had to accept that religion or move
Portugal finally regained their independence over 100 years, but by then they had lost almost all of their colonies to other nations
The Edict of Nantes guaranteed freedom of worship and political rights regardless of faith
The British were interested in trading to gain 2 items, silk, tea. In exchange the British gave the Chinese opium
The British were interested in trading to gain 2 items, silk, tea. In exchange the British gave the Chinese opium
received charter from Queen Elizabeth I
rule by shoguns of the Tokugawa family (lasted until 1868)
Thirty Years’ War – began as a religious uprising in 1618 and resulted in a new map of Europe
France, Denmark, Sweden and England helped the Protestant rebels fight the Habsburg dynasty
The Habsburgs of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain joined together to fight
Most of the fighting occurred in the part of the Holy Roman Empire that later became Germany
They feared they would lose power
They feared they would lose power
During renovations in the White Tower the skeletons of 2 children were discovered. The king ordered them buried in Westminster.
Peter copied France and improved Russia’s military
When it ended in 1721, Russia had gained access to the Baltic Sea
time period when people believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature
recognized Philip as king of Spain, but he had to renounce any claim to the French throne and it gave French American lands to England
In 1740, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI died and left his lands to his daughter, Maria Theresa. That was a problem in some of the Habsburg lands, so before he died, Charles made the other European rulers accept the Pragmatic Sanction.
Frederick William I signed the Pragmatic Sanction, but then invaded Silesia (part of Austria) This started the War of Austrian Succession
As a result he came to believe that the power of the king should be absolute
war involving most of Europe that took place in Europe, North America and India
It began when the Prussians invaded France and Austria
It ended when Empress Elizabeth of Russia died and Czar Peter III stopped fighting
The Industrial Revolution allowed products to be produced faster, due to the invention of using coal.
They wanted to return to the way things were before the French Revolution and Napoléon
Metternich suppressed freedom of speech and the press, he wanted to prevent war and/or revolution and protect absolute monarchs
War between China and Great Britain over tea and opium trading. The Chinese lost. The Treaty of Nanjing was the peace treaty to end the Opium War
Attempt to start a new dynasty that would rid China of Europeans and an attempt to get rid of Christianity in China. It weakened the Qing dynasty and made China weaker to allow more Europeans to enter.
China lost another war to Britain, allowing Britain more ports, more land, more trading privileges.
These were changes to help make China more modern. The other leaders were more conservative and didn’t like the Hundred Days Reform
France, Germany, England, Russia and Japan had large spheres of influence in China. These spheres were along the coast and the large rivers
Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, England and the US
The US felt excluded and proposed the Open Door Policy. All nations have equal trade rights in China
Boxers began by attacking Chinese Christians and foreign missionaries. Later the Boxers destroyed anything connected to outsiders
The general of the imperial army negotiated rather than fighting
Causes of WWI included Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism.
This was a direct cause of WWI.
This is the cause for US entering WWI
Students from 13 universities met and agreed on 5 resolutions. That afternoon over 3000 students gathered in front of the Tiananmen
Foreign countries capitalized on the internal chaos and widened their spheres of influence, taking more powers. China then entered WWI, to help the Allies and hopefully win some land back at the end of the war.
military commander took over leadership of the Nationalists. His name was Chiang Kai-shek
To eliminate the threat of communism Chiang expelled all of the Soviet advisors and arrested and killed large numbers of Chinese communists.
They set up their own government, copying the Soviet Union’s
Ended the alliance between the two parties, but didn’t end communism in China
He attempts this by using the military
This caused them to flee, once again.
over 100,000 Communists walked over 6,000 miles
right after Japan surrendered, China’s civil war resumed
During World War II the Communists and the Nationalists paused their civil war to join together and fight against the Japanese invaders.
The government the Communists established was called the People’s Republic of China and led by Mao Zedong. Chiang Kai-shek took the Nationalists and fled to the island of Taiwan, forming their own government there
China and the Soviet Union were both Communists and allies in the 1950’s. During the 1960’s the differences between the countries became too much and they were no longer friends and in fact had several skirmishes along their border.
The plan was based on similar Soviet plans and had two main goals, build industry and land reform
The Great Leap Forward wanted to match the factories of the western world. Citizens were encouraged to make steel in their back yards.
20 million people starved to death
Chinese society was in turmoil until late 1968 Mao broke up the Red Guards and ended the Cultural Revolution
Gang of Four on trial for their crimes, including treason and given life sentences
Shortly thereafter, we began allowing exchanges
fight for power among his successors. Moderate Communists under Deng Xiaoping. Radical Communists under Mao’s widow Jiang Qing and her Gang of Four
Led to the fastest growing economy in the world.
Chinese calling for a “fifth modernization”
Using their tanks and gun and clubs, soldiers cleared the students out of the Square by early morning on June 4. He stood in front of the tank, and taken away.
The people gathering in Tiananmen Square wanted to end the ruling class’s corruption, they wanted a greater voice in government, and they wanted to have better conditions in the universities.At the beginning of June, the government decided to use the army to disperse the students.