World History



3500 B.C. - 2000 B.C.

The first modern civilization to be created. People began settling in one place and many farming advances were created.

Upper and Lower Egypt Unite

3150 BC - 2686 BC

The first Pharaoh of Egypt, Menes united Egypt. He was the first to establish a dynasty and track their lineage.


3100 BC - 332 BC

Egypt was centered around the Nile river, allowing an advancement of agriculture and farming. The pyramids, one of the most famous tourist attractions in Egypt, were built in this time. Egypt was also very powerful and held a massive trading system.

Invention of Wheel

3000 BC

Lead to agriculture becoming easier and more efficient.

Indus River Valley

2500 B.C. - 1700 B.C.

They are known for farming cotton. Indus was the first civilization to use standardized brick sizes, like today. Everyday homes also had sanitation.

Shang Dynasty

1750 BC - 1500 BC

This was along the Yellow River. They developed a system of writing, and their religion was combines animism and ancestor worship.

China River Valley

1700 BC

Literature and scientific advances were very important China. They began to observe planetary movements and established how long a year is.

Hebrews left Ur

1700 BC

Hebrews left the city of Ur with their leader Abraham and settles in Amorites. One of the first people to believe in a monotheistic religion.

New Kingdom

1600 bc - 1100 bc

This was the most powerful time period in Egypt. Egypt expanded the Empire taking over Nubia, Hittites, the Mediterranean coast, and lands near the east.

Slavery in Egypt

1400 BC - 1200 BC

Hebrews were used as slaves for Pharaohs.

Small Kingdoms

1000 BC


1000 BC - 800 BC

Were the only ancient people to sail the sea rather than hug the coastlines. They also invented the alphabet, like we use today instead of symbols, making it easier to communicate.

Hebrews start their own kingdom

1000 BC

When Moses led them out of Egypt they moved to Canaan and created their own kingdom. Some kings included, Saul, David, Solomon. Jerusalem becomes their capital city.

Old Testament

900 BC

The first written records of the Old Testament.


800 BC - 31 BC

Ancient Greece had many different important periods including, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic.

Ancient Greece and Rome

800 BC - 476 AD

Civilizations of the Mediterranean world.

Archaic Period

800 BC - 500 BC

Established the Greek alphabet we use today. Literature and poetry were very important, and Homer wrote many influential works we still read today. Used myths and gods to explain natural happenings in the world. This is when Zeus and many other gods were created. Towards the end of this period rational reasoning began to appear. Athens allowed arts and education to flourish, white Spartan allowed military to become important.

Siddhartha Gautama

563 BCE - 483 BCE

Siddhartha was born and founded Buddhism.


551 BCE - 479 BCE

He worked in a court for many years, thus forming most of his political beliefs from first hand knowledge. He was the first ethics teacher, teaching his disciples to behave based on example rather than rules.

Ancient Rome

509 BC - 476 AD

Representatives for the people began governing. Prized virtues were frugality, bravery and being a good soldier. Simplicity of living and saving resources. The Stoic ideals from Hellenistic Greece carried over into the prized virtues of the Roman Republic

Classical Greece

500 BC - 323 BC

This time proves Greece to become more intellectual. Philosophers began to share their new ideas and rational thinking became important.

Persian Wars

500 BCE - 479 BCE

Battles between Greek-city states and Persian Empire.

Peloponnesean War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League against Athens

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

Alexander fought back the invading Persians. He then conquered Persia, Egypt, the Indus River Valley, and the rest of Greece

Hellenistic Period

323 BC - 31 BC

Greeks find they are not the center of the world, and their are other nations. Greek city-states become part of a kingdom. Greek men become subjects instead of citizens.

Punic Wars

264 BC - 146 BC

Between Rome and Carthage.

Quin Dynasty

221 B.C.E. - 207 B.C.E.

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

After the fall of the Han, many invaders entered China, eventually adopting Chinese customs but keeping the area unstable until the late 500’s

Tiberius Gracchus

133 BC

Proposes land reform, gives wheat to the hungry, builds racetracks, institutes gladiators, and proposes that he be re-elected. He is then murdered.

Julius Caesar

100 BC - 44 BC

He was the dictator of Rome, and the head of his family.

Julius Caesar nominated to be Flamen Dialis

84 BC

Caesar Elected quaestor

69 BC

Went to Hispania. Elected aedile (manage public buildings, organize festivals)

Caesar Elected Pontifex Maximus

63 BC

Caesar Governor of Hispania

62 BC

Civil War

50 BC

Pompey flees the city, which surrenders immediately to Caesar. Caesar takes control of Rome and begins to chase Pompey and the other rebellious Senators

Caesar Dictator of Rome Again

48 BC - 46 BC

Appointed dictator of Rome again. Goes to Middle East to put down a rebellion .Also ends an uprising against Rome in Africa. Receives the Queen of Egypt as an extended houseguest

Caesar Appointed Dictator.

48 BC

appointed dictator, elected consulate, resigned dictatorship.

Caesar returns to Rome

46 BC

Caesar Elected 4th Term Counsel

45 BC

onsul. Made his great-nephew Octavian his heir, with Brutus next. Established a 365 day year, with an extra day every 4 years.

Ides of March

44 BC

Mark Antony, one of his loyal commanders, tried to warn him of a plot, but the crowds kept them apart. A group of Senators crowded Caesar and gave him a petition, tugged on his tunic. One Senator, Casca lunged at his neck with a knife. He was then stabbed repetitively and died.

Mark Antony Death

31 BC

In 31 BC at the Battle of Actium, Mark Antony kills himself and Cleopatra is captured.

Caesar Augustus

27 BC

Becomes first Roman Emperor.

Pax Romana

27 BC - 180 AD

This was a period of huge population growth and massive trading. During Pax Romana, the Roman Empire covered over 2 million square miles. Trademarks of the era included a uniform law code, clear lines of authority, citizenship for all free men, and state financed education to ensure literate citizens


January 1, 3 AD - January 1, 33 AD


40 AD

Roman citizen had a vision and began to preach. Paul of Tarsus transforms Christianity from a Jewish sect to a religion open to anyone

Burning of Rome

64 AD

Franks began moving into the Rhine valley and clashing with Romans



284 - 305

He spent much of his time fighting to end rebellions early in his reign. By 299 Diocletian had established peace in the empire. He and his co-emperor took part in a ceremony of sacrifice and divination but the entrails couldn’t be read
Christians were blamed and all those in the royal house and army had to make sacrifices to purify the empire

Oracle of Apollo

302 - 303

He issued an “Edict against Christians” Burned scripture, tore down churches, forbade assembly of Christians

Abdication of Diocletian

304 - 305

He fell ill and continued to get worse. He was the first ruler to adict.

Death of Diocletian


Edict of Milan


Ending persecution of Christians and returning their property

Constantine Acted as a Judge


North Africa between sects of Christianity, using a Christian army to enforce his ruling

Council of Nicaea

325 AD

First council where all church leaders came together. Decided when to have Easter, decided the idea of the Trinity. Issued the Nicene Creed (“We believe in one God..”)



Byzantium was rebuilt and renamed Constantinople


379 - 395

Made Christianity (as defined by the Nicene Creed) the official (and only legal) religion in the Empire.

Great Wall of China

400 - 1500

The Wall was improved and reinforced in the late 1400’s to keep out the Mongols

Western Roman Empire fell


Visigoths (Germanic tribe) with the fall of the city of Rome

Clovis became king of one of the tribes


Yamato rulers had extended their control over much of Hon-shu.


The Middle Ages

500 AD - 1500

benedict was disgusted with the corruption he witnessed in Rome and lived a hermit’s life


He became famous for his holiness and attracted many followers. Establishes Benedict Rule.

Birth of Muhammad


Born to a poor clan in a ruling tribe in the Arabian city of Mecca. When he was about 40 years old the angel Jibreel visited him and told him that he was a prophet of Allah.

Grand Canal


Sui managed to reunite China and build the Grand Canal

Prince Shotoku served as regent from 593-621.

593 - 621

A great admirer of China, Shotoku imported scholars who taught Confucianism to Japan.

Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

300 years of Tang rule China experienced a golden age. People from many parts of the world lived peacefully in China. The capital of Xi’an became a cultural center. The Tang made China the wealthiest and most powerful country in the world.

Muhammad settled in Yathrib


Mecca and Medina War


Muhammad moved back to Mecca, destroyed the idols in the Kaaba, and rededicated it to the worship of Allah

Emperor Leo III ordered the destruction of icons


Spanish Moors invaded


Pépin III takes throne


Pépin is anointed king and begins the Carolingian dynasty


Charlemagne becomes king

768 - 814

Charlemagne was a warrior, devout Christian, able administrator and great advocate of learning


772 - 841

Pope called bishops together


They discussed the Controversy. The council decided it was heresy to not allow icons

golden age of the arts in Japan

794 - 1185

Heian became a great center of culture and learning

Danes (the English word for Vikings) took over much of England

800 - 1000

Christmas Day 800


Charlemagne was in Rome, worshipping at St. Peter’s Basilica. When he knelt to pray, the pope put a crown on his head and named him “Emperor of the Romans”

Treaty of Verdun


ended a 3 year civil war and divided the empire

Middle Kingdom had been chopped up and divided between the Eastern and Western Kingdoms


Otto I

936 - 973

Otto the Great worked to make Germany as large and powerful as France

Pope John XII asked for his help in fighting against the Roman nobles


Foot Binding Becomes Common Practice under Tang Dynasty (618 - 907)

960 - 1279

Otto was Emperor of the Romans


Otto was Emperor of the Romans


The Tale of Genji.


Paris, Oxford, Bologna, Salerno developed

1000 - 1200

High Middle Ages

1000 - 1500

Vikings had used Kiev as a trading base to get to Constantinople


Paper money


Paper money was first used under Kublai.

Henry III

1046 - 1056

thought that the church was part of his imperial power.

Church split in 2


West – Roman Catholic Church, Pope is the head, allows icons
East – Eastern Orthodox Church, patriarch of Constantinople is head, did not allow icons. The churches are still separate today

Henry traveled through the harsh winter weather to meet with Gregory at Canossa


When Henry arrived, the Pope made him wait for 3 days out in the cold. Henry then apologized and begged for mercy. Gregory forgave him and Henry went back to fight his nobles

Pope Urban II wanted to regain the Holy Land



1095 - 1291

The compass

1100 - 1300

navigators learned how to magnetize needles, by the 1300’s they had begun to make compasses with marked directions

code of conduct had begun


Gothic style emerges

1100 CE

Tall spires, flying buttresses, arches

Heian was the great center of Japanese art and literature


The Song of Roland


Charlemagne’s wars against the Moors


1100 - 1150

The main art form of the Middle Ages was church architecture

City of Worms


The Concordat of Worms ended the controversy, allowed the emperor to give fiefs to bishops, but only the pope could name the bishops

2nd Crusade

1147 - 1149

Louis VII of France and Conrad III of German

Two of these powerful clans went to war with each other

1150 - 1180

Minamoto clan won, and because he had a very powerful army, and because the emperor was still busy in Heian, the leader of the Minamoto clan was the most powerful man in Japan

Frederick I

1152 - 1190

He attempted to overtake 4 independent cities in Northern Italy because they were wealthy trade centers. The 4 cities joined together to form the Lombard League and fight against Frederick

Genghis Kahn

1162 - 1227

His name meant “Universal Ruler." Fiercest leader of the Mongols

Minamoto Shogun


Innocent III

1198 - 1216

He was the most powerful pope.

Genghis led the Mongols to capture much of China, Central Asia and Persia


Children’s Crusade


group of barons rebelled against John


He was forced to sign the Magna Carta

Kublai Khan

1215 - 1294

Kublai Khan led the Mongols to conquer the rest of China, Tibet, part of Southeast Asia

Batu Khan leads Mongols into Europe

1237 - 1241

Batu plundered the cities, either killing or enslaving the inhabitants.Mongols controlled Russia for the next 200 years.

Marco Polo

1254 - 1324

Marco Polo traveled from Venice to the court of Kublai Khan. He became a special representative of Kublai. He wrote The Travels of Marco Polo describing the court of the Khan

Rise of Habsburg


the ruler of a small state in Switzerland was elected emperor

Kublai Khan attempted to invade Japan


Mongols tried again, with 2 armies


Muslim capture of Acre


King Philip IV of France ordered the French clergy to pay taxes


Pope decreed that the pope had power over worldly rulers


The Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1377

The next 6 popes were French and lived in Avignon. The years that the popes lived in Avignon are called the Babylonian Captivity

Defender of the Faith


Capetian king died


King Edward III of England owned land in France, making him a vassal to the French king

Series of conflicts between France and England (Hundred Years' War)

1337 - 1453

The French assembly chose Philip VI, Count of Flanders but King Edward claimed the throne for his own, bringing his army across the Channel.Hundred Years’ War

Black Death or the Bubonic Plague


The Plague began in Asia and spread along the trade routes to Europe. One of the ways it spread was through fleas and rats


1350 - 1700

Emperor Charles IV, trying to regain power, changed the rules so that only 7 people elected each new emperor


Ming Defeat Mongols


The Ming made their official religion Confucianism
The Ming divided people into 4 classes
Scholar-gentry, Farmers, Artisans, Merchants. The Ming did not want to be invaded from the north again

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Chinese navigated their ships using a compass.

Gregory XI moved the papacy back to Rome


Spain and Portugal had both claimed some of the same new lands


To settle their disputes, the Pope issued an edict which drew an imaginary line through the Atlantic Ocean.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Great Wall Reinforced


More universities had opened in Europe


Exploration and Expansion

1400 - 1800

China navigates to India


Chinese travel to Middle East


2 or 3 popes at once


Council of Constance


removed the Italian and French popes, a third abdicated and a new pope was elected

Joan of Arc


Joan convinced a garrison commander to allow her an escort to visit the Dauphin’s court in Chinon. To remain safe, she wore men’s clothing while traveling. Joan of Arc impressed the Dauphin’s court and was allowed to travel with the relief army to Orléans. Supporters equipped her with a horse, white armor, shield, sword, banner and entourage. Because she was inspired by visions of saints, the Dauphin had her examined by the church to make sure she wasn’t a witch or a heretic

Joan was captured while covering a retreat

May, 1430

Medici Family

1434 - 1737

Commercial Revolution

1450 - 1700

The period between the late 1400’s and the 1700’s when Europeans made major economic changes

Johannes Gutenberg created a printing press


War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

e House of York challenged the House of Lancaster for the throne of England

Ferdinand and Isabella united Spain


Princes in the tower of London


After that summer, no one saw them again – alive or dead.

Parliament declared Princes Edward and Richard illegitimate


Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster defeated Richard III of York


To forestall future trouble with the House of York, Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward, sister of the Princes in the Tower

Bartolomeu Dias


sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and found the Indian Ocean

captured Granada


Jews were ordered to convert to Christianity or leave Spain


Treaty of Tordesillas


King Henry VII sent John Cabot exploring


taked British claims to Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New England

Monarchs of Europe

1500 - 1800

Martin Luther and the Reformation


Spain’s Colonies


Spain was the most powerful country because of their continual exploration of and expansion into the New World

Role of Colonies


Europe wanted to colonize places that had a lot of gold, silver and raw materials that their home country didn’t have
That way they didn’t have to buy those raw materials
Most colonial powers forbade the selling of raw materials to other countries

Ponce de Leon discovered Florida


Portuguese reach China


Martin Luther posted the Ninety-Five Theses


Cortes invaded Mexico, conquering the Aztecs



1520 - 1530

many new religious groups appeared in Germany and Switzerland

Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and excommunicated him


Pizarro claimed land from Ecuador to Chile for Spain


Counter Reformation


There were 3 goals of the Counter Reformation
Returning to spiritual matters
Making doctrines more clear
Stopping Protestantism

Ignatius de Loyola founded the Jesuits


Edward VI

1547 - 1553



Peace of Augsburg

1555 C.E.

Which allowed each German ruler to choose the religion for his state. His subjects either had to accept that religion or move

Chinese Trading Station


Queen Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Spain overtook Portugal

1580 - 1680

Portugal finally regained their independence over 100 years, but by then they had lost almost all of their colonies to other nations

Henry IV became king of France


The Edict of Nantes guaranteed freedom of worship and political rights regardless of faith

Enlightenment and Revolution

1600 - 1760

British Trade with China


The British were interested in trading to gain 2 items, silk, tea. In exchange the British gave the Chinese opium

British Trade with China


The British were interested in trading to gain 2 items, silk, tea. In exchange the British gave the Chinese opium

British began claiming colonies


British East India Company


received charter from Queen Elizabeth I

Tokugawa became shogun


rule by shoguns of the Tokugawa family (lasted until 1868)

Henry IV death


Michael Romanov was elected czar


Thirty Years’ War

1618 - 1648

Thirty Years’ War – began as a religious uprising in 1618 and resulted in a new map of Europe
France, Denmark, Sweden and England helped the Protestant rebels fight the Habsburg dynasty
The Habsburgs of the Holy Roman Empire and Spain joined together to fight
Most of the fighting occurred in the part of the Holy Roman Empire that later became Germany

attacked Huguenot towns


asked for peace and he took away their ability to have fortified cities


shogun closed Japan off from the rest of the world


They feared they would lose power

shogun closed Japan off from the rest of the world


They feared they would lose power

Tobacco, cotton, ginger, indigo – Irish Slaves


Sugar cane – African Slaves


Manchu Qing Dynasty Rules

1644 - 1912

Louis fought 4 wars between

1667 - 1713

Louis took full control of the government


White Tower


During renovations in the White Tower the skeletons of 2 children were discovered. The king ordered them buried in Westminster.

Peter I became czar

1679 - 1725

Peter copied France and improved Russia’s military

dissolved the Edict of Nantes, which ended France’s policy of religious tolerance


dominant European trade power in India


Habsburg King of Spain died


Peter started a long war with Sweden

1700 - 1721

When it ended in 1721, Russia had gained access to the Baltic Sea

Habsburg dynasty ended


French army was the largest and most powerful army in Europe


The Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

time period when people believed that they could apply the scientific method and use reason to explain human nature

Treaty of Utrecht


recognized Philip as king of Spain, but he had to renounce any claim to the French throne and it gave French American lands to England

Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI died


In 1740, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI died and left his lands to his daughter, Maria Theresa. That was a problem in some of the Habsburg lands, so before he died, Charles made the other European rulers accept the Pragmatic Sanction.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Frederick William I signed the Pragmatic Sanction, but then invaded Silesia (part of Austria) This started the War of Austrian Succession

Louis XIV became King of France

1743 - 1814

As a result he came to believe that the power of the king should be absolute

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

war involving most of Europe that took place in Europe, North America and India
It began when the Prussians invaded France and Austria
It ended when Empress Elizabeth of Russia died and Czar Peter III stopped fighting

Industrial Revolution

1760 - 1840

The Industrial Revolution allowed products to be produced faster, due to the invention of using coal.

the British Empire was considered to be the greatest colonial power in the world


Frederick the Great had made Prussia into a major power


Germany and Italy become unified


European rulers were reactionaries


They wanted to return to the way things were before the French Revolution and Napoléon

Age of Metternich

1815 - 1848

Metternich suppressed freedom of speech and the press, he wanted to prevent war and/or revolution and protect absolute monarchs

Opium War

1839 - 1842

War between China and Great Britain over tea and opium trading. The Chinese lost. The Treaty of Nanjing was the peace treaty to end the Opium War

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

Attempt to start a new dynasty that would rid China of Europeans and an attempt to get rid of Christianity in China. It weakened the Qing dynasty and made China weaker to allow more Europeans to enter.

China loses another war to Britain


China lost another war to Britain, allowing Britain more ports, more land, more trading privileges.

Hundred Days Reform


These were changes to help make China more modern. The other leaders were more conservative and didn’t like the Hundred Days Reform

Foreign Trade


France, Germany, England, Russia and Japan had large spheres of influence in China. These spheres were along the coast and the large rivers

Eight-Nation Alliance


Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, England and the US

Open Door Policy


The US felt excluded and proposed the Open Door Policy. All nations have equal trade rights in China

Boxer Rebellion


Boxers began by attacking Chinese Christians and foreign missionaries. Later the Boxers destroyed anything connected to outsiders

Sun Yixian led revolts in China

1911 AD

The general of the imperial army negotiated rather than fighting

Chinese Emperor Adbicated


WWI begins

1914 - 1918

Causes of WWI included Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated

June 28, 1914

This was a direct cause of WWI.

First Battle of the Marne


Lusitania Sunk

May 7, 1915

This is the cause for US entering WWI

Battle of Verdun

February 21, 1916 - December 18, 1916

Russian Revolution


United States declares war on Germany

April 6, 1917

Allies Advance


Germany signs Armistice

November 11 1918 - November 12 1918

May 4 1919 Movement

May 4 1919

Students from 13 universities met and agreed on 5 resolutions. That afternoon over 3000 students gathered in front of the Tiananmen

May 4 1919 Movement

May 4 1919

Foreign countries capitalized on the internal chaos and widened their spheres of influence, taking more powers. China then entered WWI, to help the Allies and hopefully win some land back at the end of the war.

Chinese Communist Party


Sun Yixian died


military commander took over leadership of the Nationalists. His name was Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang killed large numbers of Chinese communists.


To eliminate the threat of communism Chiang expelled all of the Soviet advisors and arrested and killed large numbers of Chinese communists.

Communists escaped to southwest China


They set up their own government, copying the Soviet Union’s

Executions of Communists


Ended the alliance between the two parties, but didn’t end communism in China

Chiang tries to eliminate Communism


He attempts this by using the military

Princes Were examined again


Nationalists attacked the Communists


This caused them to flee, once again.

Long March by Chinese Communists

1934 - 1935

over 100,000 Communists walked over 6,000 miles



Chinese Civil War


right after Japan surrendered, China’s civil war resumed

Japanese surrender WWII


During World War II the Communists and the Nationalists paused their civil war to join together and fight against the Japanese invaders.

Mao Zedong

1949 - 1976

Communists defeat nationalists


The government the Communists established was called the People’s Republic of China and led by Mao Zedong. Chiang Kai-shek took the Nationalists and fled to the island of Taiwan, forming their own government there

Foreign Relations

1949 - 1960

China and the Soviet Union were both Communists and allies in the 1950’s. During the 1960’s the differences between the countries became too much and they were no longer friends and in fact had several skirmishes along their border.

5 year plans


The plan was based on similar Soviet plans and had two main goals, build industry and land reform

Great Leap Forward


The Great Leap Forward wanted to match the factories of the western world. Citizens were encouraged to make steel in their back yards.

Chinese Starvation (Great Leap Forward)

1958 - 1960

20 million people starved to death

Cultural Revolution


Chinese society was in turmoil until late 1968 Mao broke up the Red Guards and ended the Cultural Revolution

Moderates Win Control


Gang of Four on trial for their crimes, including treason and given life sentences

President Nixon Visits China


Shortly thereafter, we began allowing exchanges

Death of Mao


fight for power among his successors. Moderate Communists under Deng Xiaoping. Radical Communists under Mao’s widow Jiang Qing and her Gang of Four

US recognizes China


US and China sign trade agreements


China began to import new technologies

1985 - 1994

Led to the fastest growing economy in the world.

Pro-democracy demonstrators gathered


Chinese calling for a “fifth modernization”

“Tank Man”


Using their tanks and gun and clubs, soldiers cleared the students out of the Square by early morning on June 4. He stood in front of the tank, and taken away.

Tiananmen Square

April 15 1990

The people gathering in Tiananmen Square wanted to end the ruling class’s corruption, they wanted a greater voice in government, and they wanted to have better conditions in the universities.At the beginning of June, the government decided to use the army to disperse the students.

Hong Kong was returned to China by the British


China hosted the Summer Olympics