world history final



3500 BC

Land between 2 rivers, the tigris and Euphrates, beginning of modern civilization

Upper and lower Egypt united

3100 BC

Pharaoh menes united the upper and lower kingdoms and established a dynasty.


3100 BC

Life surrounded the nile, polytheistic religon, ruled by pharoahs.

first wheel in use

3000 BC

first wheel found in Mesopotamia

Indus civilization grows along river

2600 BC - 1600 BC

highly organized, covered over 600 miles.

Shang dynasty

1750 BC - 1500 BC

developed a system of writing, believed in animisn ( animal spirits)

Hebrews left Ur

1700 BC

The new kingdom ( Egypt)

1570 BC - 1100 BC

Most powerful time for Egypt, it expanded into an empire.

Hebrews enslaved by Egyptians

1400 BC - 1200 BC

The hebrew people were used as slaves by the egyptians


1000 BC - 800 BC

Excellent seafarers, invented the alphabet,

Hebrews had own kingdom

1000 BC

old testament writings

900 BC

Siddhartha Guatama is born

600 BC

Confucius is born

551 BC

Taught the silver rule - “Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself.”

Han Dynasty

206 BC - 220 AD

Roman citizen gets visions, preaches

40 AD

an educated, Roman citizen had a vision and began to preach

Franks move into rhine valley


In the 200’s the Franks (a German tribe)began moving into the Rhine valley and clashing with Romans

Edict against christians

302 AD - 303 AD

Apollo couldn’t give advice to Diocletian because of the Christians, edict was bron, christians were persecuted , burned alive, decapitated, forbade from gathering.

Great wall of china is built

400 AD - 1500 AD

the great wall was to keep invaders out and stretches 6000 miles.

The middle ages

432 - 1328

The time between the classical age and the beginnings of the modern world is called the Middle Ages or the Medieval period

Roman soldiers and governors left Britain


Roman soldiers and governors left Britain in 450, the Anglo-Saxons (a Germanic tribe) took control

Roman empire falls

476 AD

Two of the main events of the Fall of Rome were the plundering of the city of Rome by an invading tribe, the Vandals, in the middle years of the century and the abdication of the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, in 476

Clovis comes to power


Clovis became king of one of the tribes
They became the Merovingian dynasty
Clovis conquered other Frankish tribes to build a larger kingdom
modern day France

saint benedict


Around 500 a young monk named Benedict was disgusted with the corruption he witnessed in Rome and lived a hermit’s life
He became famous for his holiness and attracted many followers
He established rules to govern the lives of monks – known as the Benedictine Rule, he became saint benedict

Muhammad was born

570 AD

taught monotheism, islam.

Sui dynasty reunites china

589 AD

Also built the grand canal which covers 1114 miles

Tang dynasty came into power

618 AD

ruled for 300 years, called chinas golden age, made china wealthy and powerful

Muhammad and followers settle in yathrib

622 AD

Yathribs name changed to medina, settle in hirjah the first year of the islamic calender.

Muhammad moves back to Mecca

630 AD

He destryoed all idols in the kabaa and rededicated it to allah.

pépin takes power

687 - 714

Pépin II reunited the Frankish kingdoms

Emporer Leo III ordered destruction of Icons

726 AD

During Iconoclastic disaster, he ordered all icons be destroyed.

Moors invaded franks


Spanish Moors invaded. Martel’s cavalry stopped the Muslim advance, though raids continued

Pépin III takes throne


Pépin is anointed king and begins the Carolingian dynasty

charlemagne becomes king

768 - 814

Charlemagne was a warrior, devout Christian, able administrator and great advocate of learning

Pope called officials together to discuss iconoclastic controversy

787 AD

Determined it was heresy to not have icons.

Danes took control

800 - 1000

Danes (the English word for Vikings) took over much of England between the 800’s and 1000’

charlemagne is crowned emperor of romans

December 25, 800

Charlemagne was in Rome, worshipping at St. Peter’s Basilica
When he knelt to pray, the pope put a crown on his head and named him “Emperor of the Romans”

treaty of verdun


Treaty of Verdun ended a 3 year civil war and divided the empire

First printed book

868 AD

The first printed book the diamond sutra, a religous text is printed .

middle kingdom is divided


the Middle Kingdom had been chopped up and divided between the Eastern and Western Kingdoms
Lords in these kingdoms were powerful and started to defy the Carolingian monarchs



the political organization where small independent rulers held control in their regions
By the 900’s most of Europe was governed by this system

otto is elected as king


In 936 the feudal lords of Germany elected Otto I as their king
Otto the Great worked to make Germany as large and powerful as France

otto helps Pope John XII


In 951 Pope John XII asked for his help in fighting against the Roman nobles

otto is crowned holy roman emperor


When Otto defeated the nobles, the Pope rewarded him by crowning him Emperor of the Romans in 962

last Carolingian king dies


The descendants of Charlemagne were the Carolingian kings
The last Carolingian King died in 987, the French nobles chose Hugh Capet to be the new King of France, beginning the Capetian line
The Capetians lasted for 300 years

Romanesque architecture

1000 - 1150

Romanesque was the favored style
Arches, domes, vaults, low horizontal lines
Heavy domed stone roof
Low walls with few windows
Very dark inside
Similar to what was used in the Roman Empire

4 great universities/education

1000 - 1200

Paris, Oxford, Bologna, Salerno.There were several stages of study
First was the Bachelor of Arts
After more study and tests was the Master of Arts
After that students were allowed to teach
Some then went on to study law, medicine or theology

Edward the Confessor becomes king


Danish kings died out and Anglo-Saxons chose Edward the Confessor as their king

Henry III

1046 - 1056

thought that the church was part of his imperial power
He thought that the church should be controlled by the emperor
He removed 3 popes he didn’t like, elected a German pope, and proceeded to also choose the next 3 popes

Church Split in 2

1054 AD

Church splits into east and west, east being eastern orthdox, allowing idols, west being roman orthodox allowing idols.

Henry IV makes up with the pope


As the nobles started to take action against Henry, he decided to need to make up with the pope. Henry traveled through the harsh winter weather to meet with Gregory at Canossa (in the mountains of Northern Italy)
When Henry arrived, the Pope made him wait for 3 days out in the cold
Henry then apologized and begged for mercy
Gregory forgave him and Henry went back to fight his nobles

crusade 1


Led by French and Italian lords to retake the holy land of Jerusalem from the Muslims

song of roland


The Song of Roland talks about Charlemagne’s wars against the Moors
The poem includes chivalrous values, loyalty, bravery, love and sorrow.



Chivalry was a set of rules that dictated knights’ behavior
The word “chivalry” comes from the French cheval (horse) and is due to the fact that knights rode horses

Gothic style emerges

1100 CE

Tall spires, flying buttresses, arches
Flying buttress – connect the church’s walls and arches to provide extra support
High, thin walls
Everything reaches towards heaven
Large stained glass windows filled the churches with light
Statues and sculptures were everywhere

navigation technology improves


In the 1100’s navigators learned how to magnetize needles for compasses

Concordat of Worms


The Concordat of Worms ended the controversy, allowed the emperor to give fiefs to bishops, but only the pope could name the bishops

2nd crusade

1147 - 1149

led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, didn't work

Fredrick I

1152 - 1190

Fredrick ruled germany, He attempted to overtake 4 independent cities in Northern Italy because they were wealthy trade centers
The 4 cities joined together to form the Lombard League and fight against Frederick (the pope joined them too!)
In the peace settlement, the cities agreed to recognize Frederick as their overlord, but he agreed to allow them to govern themselves

genghis Khan

1162 AD - 1227 AD

The mongols leader who led the Mongols to capture much of China, Central Asia and Persia

king philip takes back land

1180 - 1223

King Philip took back much of the lands England had taken

3rd crusade

1189 - 1192

Barbarossa, Philip and Richard v. Saladin; ended in a truce

Inocent III.

1198 - 1216

Innocent believed that kings and emperors were only servants of the church and he had the authority to settle all problems
He involved himself in disputes all over Europe, freely wielding the power of excommunication to resolve disputes
He placed all of England under interdict until King John agreed to become the pope’s vassal and pay a tithe to Rome

Gehngis Khan leads mongols

1200 AD

He led them to capture much of China, Central Asia and Persia



In the early 1200’s the Church was the wealthiest institution in Europe due to The medieval church having power to tax
The parish priest collected a tithe

4th crusade

1202 - 1261

attack of Zadar, excommunication, sacking of Constantinople



Saint Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscans in 1209

childrens crusade


attempt to expell muslims from the holy land

barons rebel against john


a group of barons rebelled against John due to him wanting to raise taxes,
He was forced to sign the Magna Carta



Saint Dominic founded the order of the Dominicans in 1216
The Dominicans were asked by the church to seek out heretics and stamp out teachings that were opposed to church doctrine

habsburgs gain power


the ruler of a small state in Switzerland was elected emperor
The weak Habsburg emperor used his title to arrange marriages with powerful families and used careful strategies to gradually conquer lands, thus gaining more power

crusades end


Ended with the Muslim capture of Acre

clergy taxed


King Philip IV of France ordered the French clergy to pay taxes

compass Navigation improves again


compasses were now made with markings along with the magnetized needle for improved navigation

Pope Boniface VIII


Pope Boniface VIII refused to pay taxes and decreed that the pope had power over worldly rulers

babylonian captivity

1309 - 1377

After the death of Boniface, Philip had a French pope elected.
He took the name Clement V and moved the church headquarters to Avignon
The next 6 popes were French and lived in Avignon
The years that the popes lived in Avignon are called the Babylonian Captivity
This in in reference to the time Hebrews were forced to live in Babylon, the Church lost the respect of people outside of France during this time period

defender of faith


2 teachers at the University of Paris wrote Defender of the Faith which said that the pope only had power over the church

last Capetian king died


King charles IV died without any male heirs, causing The French assembly chose Philip VI, Count of Flanders but King Edward claimed the throne for his own, bringing his army across the Channel, starting the hundred years war

hundred years war

1337 - 1453

series of conflicts between France and England lasting for 116 years

Bubonic Plague


The Plague began in Asia and spread along the trade routes to Europe
One of the ways it spread was through fleas and rats

renaissance and reformation

1350 - 1700

The Renaissance was both artistic and philosophical, looking to the past and the future., the reformation wasa change in the church systems of Europe

Charles IV reforms election rules


Emperor Charles IV, trying to regain power, changed the rules so that only 7 people elected each new emperor
Instead of making the emperor more powerful, that decision made those 3 archbishops and 4 princes almost completely independent of him

Ming defeat the mongols

1368 AD

The ming dynasty defeated the mongols and attmepted to abolish all mongolinfluence, changed official language to confucianism

papacy moved back to rome


Gregory XI moved the papacy back to Rome in 1377
When he died, the cardinals elected an Italian pope to please the Italian mobs
Later the cardinals elected a French pope

Great wall is reinforced

1400 AD

The great wall of china was reinforced to keep out the mongols

commercial revolution

1400 - 1700

The period between the late 1400’s and the 1700’s when Europeans made major economic changes is known as the Commercial Revolution
Cities and nations began to issue money with fixed values
This made it easier to store large sums of money in banks
Banks could also loan money to governments or businesses

chinese reached india

1405 AD

Chinese explorers navigated by ship to find india

chinese reach the middle east

1415 AD

Ming dynasty explorers reach the middle east ( Arabia)

number of popes is reformed


Until 1417 the church had 2, sometimes 3, popes at once
This period is called the Great Schism

council of constance


Council of Constance removed the Italian and French popes, a third abdicated and a new pope was elected

joan of arc


Joan convinced a garrison commander to allow her an escort to visit the Dauphin’s court in Chinon she dressed in mens clothing and impressed the Dauphin’s court and was allowed to travel with the relief army to Orléans

joan of arc is captured


Joan was captured while covering a retreat
It was customary for a person’s family to provide their ransom money, but Joan’s family was poor
The English government bought Joan from the Duke of Burgundy
The English put her on trial for heresy

Printing Press


Johannes Gutenberg created a printing press with moveable type.
Gutenberg’s first printed books were Bibles.

war of roses

1455 - 1485

war for the throne of England
The House of York challenged the House of Lancaster for the throne of England

ferdinand and isabella marry 1469


Isabella ruled Castile and Ferdinand was heir to the throne of Aragon

princes edward and richard imprisoned


The first thing Richard III did was imprison his two nephews in the Tower of London Edward and Richard .Parliament declared the Princes illegitimate

henry tudor defeats richard III


Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster defeated Richard III of York
To forestall future trouble with the House of York, Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward, sister of the Princes in the Tower

cape of good hope


Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and found the Indian Oceanmaking trade with india possible .

Jews forced to convert


all Jews were ordered to convert to Christianity or leave Spain
Later the Moors (Spanish Muslims) were given the same choice

magellan's capture granada


They shared power and captured granada

Maximilian elected holy roman emperor


Maximilian I became Holy Roman Emperor and followed family tradition

treaty of tordesillas


The Treaty of Tordesillas moved the line seperating the new lands in 1400 farther west, which allowed Portugal to claim parts of Africa and Brazil while Spain took the rest of Central and South America



Europe wanted to colonize places that had a lot of gold, silver and raw materials that their home country didn’t have

spain grows in power


In the 1500’s Spain was the most powerful country because of their continual exploration of and expansion into the New World

witch hunts

1500 - 1600

Along with being superstitious, people believed in witches
Those wise people who interpreted events and gave advice were “good witches”
If bad things started to happen, people began to call them “bad witches”
Usually these people accused of being bad witches were elderly widows
From the mid-1500’s until the mid-1600’s Europe had an outburst of “witch hunts”

ponce de leon discovery of florida

March 1513

Portuguese reach china

1514 AD

Portuguese reached china for trade.

Magellan's capture navarre


They added the other country of Navarre to their captured category.

ninety five theses


In 1517 Martin Luther posted the Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral
The Ninety-Five Theses claimed that indulgences were useless

cortes conquers aztec empire


New religious groups

1520 - 1530

During the 1520’s and 1530’s many new religious groups appeared in Germany and Switzerland
These new groups were called sects
Most of these sects were small groups of people, usually led by a preacher, but they did not have clear rules, membership or leadership
Most sects later died out.

Luther excommunicated


Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and excommunicated him
The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V called Luther before the Diet of Worms and demanded that he retract all of his writings
Luther refused and Charles outlawed him and banned the printing of his works.

pizarro claims land in ecuador an chile for spain


The gold and silver taken back to Spain by Pizarro made the Spanish monarchs very wealthy

jesuits founded


Ignatius de Loyola founded the Jesuits in 1534
The Jesuits believed that part of being a Christian was doing good deeds
Jesuits took vows of chastity, poverty and obedience to the pope

counter reformation

1534 - 1545

the Catholic Church’s attempt to reform
There were 3 goals of the Counter Reformation
Returning to spiritual matters
Making doctrines more clear
Stopping Protestantism

the peace of augsburg


the emperor and the princes signed the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed each German ruler to choose the religion for his state. His subjects either had to accept that religion or move

Portuguese establish trade with chinese

1557 AD

they traded and sent jesuit missionaries which angered the leaders

spain overtook portugal


Portugal finally regained their independence over 100 years, but by then they had lost almost all of their colonies to other nations

British trade with chinese

1600 AD

The British wanted to trade silk and tea and in return gave them opium, which caused an addiction issue in china.

index of forbidden books

1600 - 1966

Paul published the Index of Forbidden Books, which told Catholics which books they were not allowed to read because they were harmful to the Catholic faith or to good morals
The Index existed until 1966

Qing rule china

1644 AD - 1912 AD

combined all groups into one called the manchu, forced all men to wear queues ( braids) and caused famine and flooding

2 skeletons found


during renovations in the White Tower the skeletons of 2 children were discovered. The king ordered them buried in Westminster

habsburg dynasty ends


Over time the Habsburgs became the most powerful family in Europe However, they were unable to unite the Empire
The German princes refused to surrender power
The Papal States divided Italy in half and thwarted all attempts at unification
The Habsburg dynasty ended in the 1700’s with Maria Theresa, the Great-Grandmother of Europe

opium war

1839 AD - 1842 AD

war between the chinese and Britain over tea and opium trade, the Chinese lost.

Taiping rebellion

1850 AD - 1864 AD

attempted to start a new dynasty to drive out the Europeans and attempt to get rid of Christianity in china.But resulted in weakening china and left more Europeans to enter

Britain defeats china again

1856 AD

China lost again to Britain and in result they gain more ports, more land, more trading privileges.

Hundred days of reform

1898 AD

The emporer attempts the hundred days of reform but his officials and other leaders where more conservative and didnt support the reform, his aunt imprisoned him and took power.

Much of Europe has an influence on China

1900 AD

France, Germany, England, Russia and Japan had large spheres of influence in China

Sun Yixian led revolts in China

1911 AD

he led revolts against the chinese leaders wanting to get rid of old china and begin again without a constitution.

Foot binding became illegal

1912 AD

It was practiced for over a 1000 years and was still popular after the band despite the laws.

The emperor abdicated

Approx. 1912 AD

The Emporer was 6 years old when he renounced the throne, ending the Qing dynasty and making china a republic


28 july 1914 - 11 november 1918

May 4 movement

May 4, 1919

students from 13 universities met and agreed on 5 resolutions:
1. opposed giving Chinese land to Japan
2. make the Chinese aware of what was happening in Paris and how dangerous that was for China
3. recommended a large gathering in Peking (Beijing)
4. create a student union in Peking (Beijing)
5. hold a demonstration in protest of the Versailles Treaty

indus civilization is discovered


first indus river valley civilization is discovered.

chinese communist party founded


The chinese communist party was inspired by the russian revolution and the ideology fo Marx and Lenin, they wanted to free their country from foreign control and create a strong economy.

Sun Yixian dies

1925 AD

The nationalist leader dies and military commander chang Kai-shek takes over

Chinese communists set up own government

1927 AD

Communists escaped to southwest China and set up their own government, copying the Soviet Union’s

Chang attempts to remove any communist influences

1927 AD

to eliminate the threat of communism Chiang expelled all of the Soviet advisors and arrested and killed large numbers of Chinese communists.

Chang utilizes military

1930 - 1939

Chang uses military force to try and eliminate communism for good.

The long march

1934 AD

over 100,000 Communists walked over 6,000 miles (it took over a year)

Nationalists attack communists

1934 AD

Nationalists repeatedly attacked the Communists, forcing them to again flee


1939 - 1949

China's civil war resumed

1945 - 1949

After WWII the truce between the nationalist and communists ended and their civil war resumed

Japanes surrender End of World War II


During World War II the Communists and the Nationalists paused their civil war to join together and fight against the Japanese invaders.
However the uneasy truce did not last beyond the Japanese surrender in 1945

Communists defeat nationalists


The government the Communists established was called the People’s Republic of China and led by Mao Zedong
Chiang Kai-shek took the Nationalists and fled to the island of Taiwan, forming their own government there

china and russia's alliance

1950 - 1960

China and the Soviet Union were both Communists and allies in the 1950’s
During the 1960’s the differences between the countries became too much and they were no longer friends and in fact had several skirmishes along their border

Peoples republic of china


The Communists wanted to turn China into a modern and industrialized nation
and Communist government implemented the 5 Year Plan
The plan was based on similar Soviet plans and had two main goals
Build industry and Land reform

Great leap forward in China starvation

1958 - 1960

20 million people starved to death in 2 years, Output actually decreased and there were continual food shortages

The great leap forward


Mao announced another 5 year plan. This one was called the Great Leap Forward
The Great Leap Forward wanted to match the factories of the western world
Factories were operating 24/7 at full capacity and People were encouraged to make iron and steel in their backyards

Cultural revolution ended in China


Chinese society was in turmoil until Mao broke up the Red Guards and ended the Cultural Revolution

Nixon visited china


President Nixon visited China
Shortly thereafter, we began allowing exchanges

Mao zedong dies


When Mao died in 1976, there was a fight for power among his successors
Moderate Communists under Deng Xiaoping
Radical Communists under Mao’s widow Jiang Qing and her Gang of Four

Moderates win


the moderates had won control and put the Gang of Four on trial for their crimes, including treason and given life sentences

Us officially recognizes china


the US officially recognized China as China, not Taiwan as China

China ans US trade agreement


In the 1980’s the US and China signed several trade agreements

china's economy grows

1985 - 1990

China began to move towards a new and more open economy, which led to a more open society and more interaction with Western societies
China began to import new technologies from the West which led to the fastest growing economy in the world by the mid-1980’s and early 90’s

Tiananmen Square


Using their tanks and gun and clubs, soldiers cleared the students out of the Square by early morning on June 4
June 5 people were shot when they tried to return to the Square
“Tank Man” blocked the tank’s exit and asked why they were there. No one knows what happened to him

Tiananmen square

April 15, 1989

The people gathering in Tiananmen Square wanted to end the ruling class’s corruption, they wanted a greater voice in government, and they wanted to have better conditions in the universities

china reclaims hong kong


Hong Kong was returned to China by the British

China hosts olympics


China hosted the 2008 summer olympics in Beijing