Land between 2 rivers, the tigris and Euphrates, beginning of modern civilization
Pharaoh menes united the upper and lower kingdoms and established a dynasty.
Life surrounded the nile, polytheistic religon, ruled by pharoahs.
first wheel found in Mesopotamia
highly organized, covered over 600 miles.
developed a system of writing, believed in animisn ( animal spirits)
Most powerful time for Egypt, it expanded into an empire.
The hebrew people were used as slaves by the egyptians
Excellent seafarers, invented the alphabet,
Taught the silver rule - “Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself.”
an educated, Roman citizen had a vision and began to preach
In the 200’s the Franks (a German tribe)began moving into the Rhine valley and clashing with Romans
Apollo couldn’t give advice to Diocletian because of the Christians, edict was bron, christians were persecuted , burned alive, decapitated, forbade from gathering.
the great wall was to keep invaders out and stretches 6000 miles.
The time between the classical age and the beginnings of the modern world is called the Middle Ages or the Medieval period
Roman soldiers and governors left Britain in 450, the Anglo-Saxons (a Germanic tribe) took control
Two of the main events of the Fall of Rome were the plundering of the city of Rome by an invading tribe, the Vandals, in the middle years of the century and the abdication of the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, in 476
Clovis became king of one of the tribes
They became the Merovingian dynasty
Clovis conquered other Frankish tribes to build a larger kingdom
modern day France
Around 500 a young monk named Benedict was disgusted with the corruption he witnessed in Rome and lived a hermit’s life
He became famous for his holiness and attracted many followers
He established rules to govern the lives of monks – known as the Benedictine Rule, he became saint benedict
taught monotheism, islam.
Also built the grand canal which covers 1114 miles
ruled for 300 years, called chinas golden age, made china wealthy and powerful
Yathribs name changed to medina, settle in hirjah the first year of the islamic calender.
He destryoed all idols in the kabaa and rededicated it to allah.
Pépin II reunited the Frankish kingdoms
During Iconoclastic disaster, he ordered all icons be destroyed.
Spanish Moors invaded. Martel’s cavalry stopped the Muslim advance, though raids continued
Pépin is anointed king and begins the Carolingian dynasty
Charlemagne was a warrior, devout Christian, able administrator and great advocate of learning
Determined it was heresy to not have icons.
Danes (the English word for Vikings) took over much of England between the 800’s and 1000’
Charlemagne was in Rome, worshipping at St. Peter’s Basilica
When he knelt to pray, the pope put a crown on his head and named him “Emperor of the Romans”
Treaty of Verdun ended a 3 year civil war and divided the empire
The first printed book the diamond sutra, a religous text is printed .
the Middle Kingdom had been chopped up and divided between the Eastern and Western Kingdoms
Lords in these kingdoms were powerful and started to defy the Carolingian monarchs
the political organization where small independent rulers held control in their regions
By the 900’s most of Europe was governed by this system
In 936 the feudal lords of Germany elected Otto I as their king
Otto the Great worked to make Germany as large and powerful as France
In 951 Pope John XII asked for his help in fighting against the Roman nobles
When Otto defeated the nobles, the Pope rewarded him by crowning him Emperor of the Romans in 962
The descendants of Charlemagne were the Carolingian kings
The last Carolingian King died in 987, the French nobles chose Hugh Capet to be the new King of France, beginning the Capetian line
The Capetians lasted for 300 years
Romanesque was the favored style
Arches, domes, vaults, low horizontal lines
Heavy domed stone roof
Low walls with few windows
Very dark inside
Similar to what was used in the Roman Empire
Paris, Oxford, Bologna, Salerno.There were several stages of study
First was the Bachelor of Arts
After more study and tests was the Master of Arts
After that students were allowed to teach
Some then went on to study law, medicine or theology
Danish kings died out and Anglo-Saxons chose Edward the Confessor as their king
thought that the church was part of his imperial power
He thought that the church should be controlled by the emperor
He removed 3 popes he didn’t like, elected a German pope, and proceeded to also choose the next 3 popes
Church splits into east and west, east being eastern orthdox, allowing idols, west being roman orthodox allowing idols.
As the nobles started to take action against Henry, he decided to need to make up with the pope. Henry traveled through the harsh winter weather to meet with Gregory at Canossa (in the mountains of Northern Italy)
When Henry arrived, the Pope made him wait for 3 days out in the cold
Henry then apologized and begged for mercy
Gregory forgave him and Henry went back to fight his nobles
Led by French and Italian lords to retake the holy land of Jerusalem from the Muslims
The Song of Roland talks about Charlemagne’s wars against the Moors
The poem includes chivalrous values, loyalty, bravery, love and sorrow.
Chivalry was a set of rules that dictated knights’ behavior
The word “chivalry” comes from the French cheval (horse) and is due to the fact that knights rode horses
Tall spires, flying buttresses, arches
Flying buttress – connect the church’s walls and arches to provide extra support
High, thin walls
Everything reaches towards heaven
Large stained glass windows filled the churches with light
Statues and sculptures were everywhere
In the 1100’s navigators learned how to magnetize needles for compasses
The Concordat of Worms ended the controversy, allowed the emperor to give fiefs to bishops, but only the pope could name the bishops
led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany, didn't work
Fredrick ruled germany, He attempted to overtake 4 independent cities in Northern Italy because they were wealthy trade centers
The 4 cities joined together to form the Lombard League and fight against Frederick (the pope joined them too!)
In the peace settlement, the cities agreed to recognize Frederick as their overlord, but he agreed to allow them to govern themselves
The mongols leader who led the Mongols to capture much of China, Central Asia and Persia
King Philip took back much of the lands England had taken
Barbarossa, Philip and Richard v. Saladin; ended in a truce
Innocent believed that kings and emperors were only servants of the church and he had the authority to settle all problems
He involved himself in disputes all over Europe, freely wielding the power of excommunication to resolve disputes
He placed all of England under interdict until King John agreed to become the pope’s vassal and pay a tithe to Rome
He led them to capture much of China, Central Asia and Persia
In the early 1200’s the Church was the wealthiest institution in Europe due to The medieval church having power to tax
The parish priest collected a tithe
attack of Zadar, excommunication, sacking of Constantinople
Saint Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscans in 1209
attempt to expell muslims from the holy land
a group of barons rebelled against John due to him wanting to raise taxes,
He was forced to sign the Magna Carta
Saint Dominic founded the order of the Dominicans in 1216
The Dominicans were asked by the church to seek out heretics and stamp out teachings that were opposed to church doctrine
the ruler of a small state in Switzerland was elected emperor
The weak Habsburg emperor used his title to arrange marriages with powerful families and used careful strategies to gradually conquer lands, thus gaining more power
Ended with the Muslim capture of Acre
King Philip IV of France ordered the French clergy to pay taxes
compasses were now made with markings along with the magnetized needle for improved navigation
Pope Boniface VIII refused to pay taxes and decreed that the pope had power over worldly rulers
After the death of Boniface, Philip had a French pope elected.
He took the name Clement V and moved the church headquarters to Avignon
The next 6 popes were French and lived in Avignon
The years that the popes lived in Avignon are called the Babylonian Captivity
This in in reference to the time Hebrews were forced to live in Babylon, the Church lost the respect of people outside of France during this time period
2 teachers at the University of Paris wrote Defender of the Faith which said that the pope only had power over the church
King charles IV died without any male heirs, causing The French assembly chose Philip VI, Count of Flanders but King Edward claimed the throne for his own, bringing his army across the Channel, starting the hundred years war
series of conflicts between France and England lasting for 116 years
The Plague began in Asia and spread along the trade routes to Europe
One of the ways it spread was through fleas and rats
The Renaissance was both artistic and philosophical, looking to the past and the future., the reformation wasa change in the church systems of Europe
Emperor Charles IV, trying to regain power, changed the rules so that only 7 people elected each new emperor
Instead of making the emperor more powerful, that decision made those 3 archbishops and 4 princes almost completely independent of him
The ming dynasty defeated the mongols and attmepted to abolish all mongolinfluence, changed official language to confucianism
Gregory XI moved the papacy back to Rome in 1377
When he died, the cardinals elected an Italian pope to please the Italian mobs
Later the cardinals elected a French pope
The great wall of china was reinforced to keep out the mongols
The period between the late 1400’s and the 1700’s when Europeans made major economic changes is known as the Commercial Revolution
Cities and nations began to issue money with fixed values
This made it easier to store large sums of money in banks
Banks could also loan money to governments or businesses
Chinese explorers navigated by ship to find india
Ming dynasty explorers reach the middle east ( Arabia)
Until 1417 the church had 2, sometimes 3, popes at once
This period is called the Great Schism
Council of Constance removed the Italian and French popes, a third abdicated and a new pope was elected
Joan convinced a garrison commander to allow her an escort to visit the Dauphin’s court in Chinon she dressed in mens clothing and impressed the Dauphin’s court and was allowed to travel with the relief army to Orléans
Joan was captured while covering a retreat
It was customary for a person’s family to provide their ransom money, but Joan’s family was poor
The English government bought Joan from the Duke of Burgundy
The English put her on trial for heresy
Johannes Gutenberg created a printing press with moveable type.
Gutenberg’s first printed books were Bibles.
war for the throne of England
The House of York challenged the House of Lancaster for the throne of England
Isabella ruled Castile and Ferdinand was heir to the throne of Aragon
The first thing Richard III did was imprison his two nephews in the Tower of London Edward and Richard .Parliament declared the Princes illegitimate
Henry Tudor of the House of Lancaster defeated Richard III of York
To forestall future trouble with the House of York, Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward, sister of the Princes in the Tower
Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and found the Indian Oceanmaking trade with india possible .
all Jews were ordered to convert to Christianity or leave Spain
Later the Moors (Spanish Muslims) were given the same choice
They shared power and captured granada
Maximilian I became Holy Roman Emperor and followed family tradition
The Treaty of Tordesillas moved the line seperating the new lands in 1400 farther west, which allowed Portugal to claim parts of Africa and Brazil while Spain took the rest of Central and South America
Europe wanted to colonize places that had a lot of gold, silver and raw materials that their home country didn’t have
In the 1500’s Spain was the most powerful country because of their continual exploration of and expansion into the New World
Along with being superstitious, people believed in witches
Those wise people who interpreted events and gave advice were “good witches”
If bad things started to happen, people began to call them “bad witches”
Usually these people accused of being bad witches were elderly widows
From the mid-1500’s until the mid-1600’s Europe had an outburst of “witch hunts”
Portuguese reached china for trade.
They added the other country of Navarre to their captured category.
In 1517 Martin Luther posted the Ninety-Five Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral
The Ninety-Five Theses claimed that indulgences were useless
During the 1520’s and 1530’s many new religious groups appeared in Germany and Switzerland
These new groups were called sects
Most of these sects were small groups of people, usually led by a preacher, but they did not have clear rules, membership or leadership
Most sects later died out.
Pope Leo X declared Luther a heretic and excommunicated him
The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V called Luther before the Diet of Worms and demanded that he retract all of his writings
Luther refused and Charles outlawed him and banned the printing of his works.
The gold and silver taken back to Spain by Pizarro made the Spanish monarchs very wealthy
Ignatius de Loyola founded the Jesuits in 1534
The Jesuits believed that part of being a Christian was doing good deeds
Jesuits took vows of chastity, poverty and obedience to the pope
the Catholic Church’s attempt to reform
There were 3 goals of the Counter Reformation
Returning to spiritual matters
Making doctrines more clear
the emperor and the princes signed the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed each German ruler to choose the religion for his state. His subjects either had to accept that religion or move
they traded and sent jesuit missionaries which angered the leaders
Portugal finally regained their independence over 100 years, but by then they had lost almost all of their colonies to other nations
The British wanted to trade silk and tea and in return gave them opium, which caused an addiction issue in china.
Paul published the Index of Forbidden Books, which told Catholics which books they were not allowed to read because they were harmful to the Catholic faith or to good morals
The Index existed until 1966
combined all groups into one called the manchu, forced all men to wear queues ( braids) and caused famine and flooding
during renovations in the White Tower the skeletons of 2 children were discovered. The king ordered them buried in Westminster
Over time the Habsburgs became the most powerful family in Europe However, they were unable to unite the Empire
The German princes refused to surrender power
The Papal States divided Italy in half and thwarted all attempts at unification
The Habsburg dynasty ended in the 1700’s with Maria Theresa, the Great-Grandmother of Europe
war between the chinese and Britain over tea and opium trade, the Chinese lost.
attempted to start a new dynasty to drive out the Europeans and attempt to get rid of Christianity in china.But resulted in weakening china and left more Europeans to enter
China lost again to Britain and in result they gain more ports, more land, more trading privileges.
The emporer attempts the hundred days of reform but his officials and other leaders where more conservative and didnt support the reform, his aunt imprisoned him and took power.
France, Germany, England, Russia and Japan had large spheres of influence in China
he led revolts against the chinese leaders wanting to get rid of old china and begin again without a constitution.
It was practiced for over a 1000 years and was still popular after the band despite the laws.
The Emporer was 6 years old when he renounced the throne, ending the Qing dynasty and making china a republic
students from 13 universities met and agreed on 5 resolutions:
1. opposed giving Chinese land to Japan
2. make the Chinese aware of what was happening in Paris and how dangerous that was for China
3. recommended a large gathering in Peking (Beijing)
4. create a student union in Peking (Beijing)
5. hold a demonstration in protest of the Versailles Treaty
first indus river valley civilization is discovered.
The chinese communist party was inspired by the russian revolution and the ideology fo Marx and Lenin, they wanted to free their country from foreign control and create a strong economy.
The nationalist leader dies and military commander chang Kai-shek takes over
Communists escaped to southwest China and set up their own government, copying the Soviet Union’s
to eliminate the threat of communism Chiang expelled all of the Soviet advisors and arrested and killed large numbers of Chinese communists.
Chang uses military force to try and eliminate communism for good.
over 100,000 Communists walked over 6,000 miles (it took over a year)
Nationalists repeatedly attacked the Communists, forcing them to again flee
After WWII the truce between the nationalist and communists ended and their civil war resumed
During World War II the Communists and the Nationalists paused their civil war to join together and fight against the Japanese invaders.
However the uneasy truce did not last beyond the Japanese surrender in 1945
The government the Communists established was called the People’s Republic of China and led by Mao Zedong
Chiang Kai-shek took the Nationalists and fled to the island of Taiwan, forming their own government there
China and the Soviet Union were both Communists and allies in the 1950’s
During the 1960’s the differences between the countries became too much and they were no longer friends and in fact had several skirmishes along their border
The Communists wanted to turn China into a modern and industrialized nation
and Communist government implemented the 5 Year Plan
The plan was based on similar Soviet plans and had two main goals
Build industry and Land reform
20 million people starved to death in 2 years, Output actually decreased and there were continual food shortages
Mao announced another 5 year plan. This one was called the Great Leap Forward
The Great Leap Forward wanted to match the factories of the western world
Factories were operating 24/7 at full capacity and People were encouraged to make iron and steel in their backyards
Chinese society was in turmoil until Mao broke up the Red Guards and ended the Cultural Revolution
President Nixon visited China
Shortly thereafter, we began allowing exchanges
When Mao died in 1976, there was a fight for power among his successors
Moderate Communists under Deng Xiaoping
Radical Communists under Mao’s widow Jiang Qing and her Gang of Four
the moderates had won control and put the Gang of Four on trial for their crimes, including treason and given life sentences
the US officially recognized China as China, not Taiwan as China
In the 1980’s the US and China signed several trade agreements
China began to move towards a new and more open economy, which led to a more open society and more interaction with Western societies
China began to import new technologies from the West which led to the fastest growing economy in the world by the mid-1980’s and early 90’s
Using their tanks and gun and clubs, soldiers cleared the students out of the Square by early morning on June 4
June 5 people were shot when they tried to return to the Square
“Tank Man” blocked the tank’s exit and asked why they were there. No one knows what happened to him
The people gathering in Tiananmen Square wanted to end the ruling class’s corruption, they wanted a greater voice in government, and they wanted to have better conditions in the universities
Hong Kong was returned to China by the British
China hosted the 2008 summer olympics in Beijing